Healing of Memories & Reconciliation Consortium
Volunteer Counsellors Database
The Healing of Memories and Reconciliation Programme is driven by a Consortium often Ecumenical organisations. Through a multi- faceted and centrally coordinated strategy of:
- Healing of Memories sessions and facilitator training workshops,
- trauma counselling and support programmes,
- organizational capacity building, and
- publicity campaigns.
The Programme aims to continue a “communal grassroots version” of the work of the National Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) in the province. The grand aim is to restore peoples’ dignity and humanity, to heal people and help them to develop attitudes and actions that support a just, equitable and whole society.
It is believed that this will empower the affected communities to address the problems of accumulated pain and ‘multiple woundedness’ resulting from many years of apartheid injustice and oppression; political, criminal, and gender-based violence; conflictual relationships between farmers, farm workers and farm-dwellers, as well as the traumas caused by poverty and HIV/AIDS. In order for the consortium to achieve its objectives in KwaZulu-Natal, the need for teams of volunteers to offer counselling to survivors of these multiple forms of violence has been identified.
PURPOSE OF THIS DATABASE
The purpose of this database is to provide a list of qualified counsellors from churches in various regions of KwaZulu-Natal. These volunteers are qualified in various aspects of counselling such as:
- Healing of Memories,
- Stress and Trauma,
- Home-based care,
- Basic Caregiving,
- Pastoral Care,
- Marriage Counselling,
- First Aid.
Some are qualified psychologists while others bring over ten years of experience in counselling. This database of counsellors has been organised by provincial regions, namely, KZN Midlands (uMgungundlovu), South Coast (Ugu), KwaZulu, Thukela AmaJuba Mzinyathi and Durban. Within these regions a number of ecumenical organisations offer a range of counselling services to the public.
PARTICIPATING ECUMENICAL ORGANISATIONS
KZN Midlands (uMgungundlovu)
KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council (KZNCC)
KZNCC is largely responsible for coordination, lobbying and advocacy, fund-raising, donor liaison, organisational capacity building and support for the Healing of Memories and Reconciliation Programme throughout KZN.
Sinomlando Centre for Oral History and Memory Work in Africa (School of Religion and Theology, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pmb) The Sinomlando Centre for Oral History and Memory Work in Africa is a research and community-based project of the School of Religion and Theology, University of KwaZulu-Natal. In isiZulu sinomlando means “we have a history”. Sinomlando’s vision is that people with forgotten, silenced or traumatised memories retrieve their history and develop resilience. Its mission is to build capacity in oral history and memory work in partner organizations reaching out to communities.
Ujamaa Centre of the School of Religion and Theology (UKZN, Pmb) For the community to survive there is a need to promote healing strategies that support the vulnerabilities posed by challenges of life upon people from all walks of life. Ujamaa attempts to make the healing and reconciliation a lived reality here on earth as it is in heaven by journeying with vulnerable communities through a variety of workshops and awareness-raising activities among community- based HIV/AIDS support groups.
Pietermaritzburg Agency for Christian
Social Awareness (PACSA)
PACSA is an independent, ecumenical Christian non-governmental organisation that works on issues of human rights and socio-economic justice. PACSA facilitates unified church action on socio-economic issues affecting resource-poor communities.
The Institute for the Healing of Memories (IHoM)
Working from a satellite office in Durban, and in partnership with PACSA in Pmb, IHoM seeks to contribute to the healing journey of individuals, communities and nations through activities such as workshops, trainings and seminars. Core programs include Healing of Memories workshops, Youth Development Sessions and the formation of Healing Support Networks.
South Coast Region – UGU Southern KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council (SKZNCC)
Southern KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council is still in its formation stage. The body comprises of ministers’ fraternals and local ecumenical organisations ranging from Amanzimtoti, Port Shepstone, Harding, Margate to Gamalakhe. The council covers both rural and urban areas of the south coast. The council’s work includes capacity building for clergy and church-based activists through training, skills development and information sharing; deployment of trained clergy offering support to the poor and marginalised and minority groups such as gays and lesbians, refugees, and dwellers in informal settlements; deployment of male caregivers offering support to people infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; deployment of clergy to intervene in political and taxi violence.
KwaZulu Regional Christian Council (KRCC)
KwaZulu Regional Christian Council (KRCC) is the regional partner of the KZNCC. KRCC focuses on capacity building for survivors of violence and HIV/AIDS, through running Healing of Memories, Alternatives to Violence and Non-Violent Communication workshops for people who have been the victims of political and taxi violence, gender based violence conflicts between farmers and farm dwellers and those infected and affected by HIV and AIDS.
Thukela AmaJuba Mzinyathi Region Thukela-Amajuba-Mzinyathi Christian Council (TAMCC)
TAMCC facilitates unified church action on socio-economic issues affecting resource-poor communities; special focus on trauma healing [HIV/AIDS] and racial reconciliation. With the help of volunteers, TAMCC have offered Healing of Memories and various counselling programmes both locally and nationally to the victims of farm, domestic, and political violence, as well as HIV/AIDS, hereby advancing the cause of social coherence, peace and the building of social capital.
Durban Region Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA-KZN)
The YMCA in KwaZulu-Natal is an alliance of eight Associations, serving young men and women in 21 communities. Ys are run by local people, for local people aiming to transform the lives of young people for life, leadership and service. YMCA conducts Healing of Memories sessions with youth and prisoners.
The Vuleka Trust
The Vuleka Trust (herewith Vuleka), is a registered ecumenical charitable trust of the Anglican, Methodist and Roman Catholic Churches, based in the province of KwaZulu-Natal. The Trust helps people deal with the problem of racism, xenophobia and other group- based intolerances in their own lives and in the life of the church and broader society. As a result of courses on managing diversity, people make positive interventions towards a more inclusive, tolerant, just and reconciled society.
Diakonia Council of Churches (DC of C)
The Diakonia Council of Churches (DC of C) is an ecumenical organisation based in the eThekwini Municipality (Durban). The organisation mobilises its member churches to play a prophetic role in pursuit of political, social and economic justice. The Council offers stress and trauma healing workshops and support programmes for survivors of violence.
A Ministry of Caring – A theology of care in the context of Healing of Memories and Reconciliation
Why do we care?
We care because God cares. It is especially in times of suffering and persecution, of temptations, trials and tribulations, of upheavals and chaos that we remember and are reminded of God’s caring grace and love. It is in the darkness of life-threatening challenges for us individually, as a community, or as the world at large that the light of God turning to us and being ‘Emmanuel’ (God-with- us) shines forth and gives us comfort, new hope and strengthens our feeble faith. The relieving message of the might, power and victory of God overall the forces of evil and destruction then becomes a central aspect of our faith.
In faith we state: God has created the world and is in charge of it. God created it for the benefit of the whole of creation. We are called to care for creation by not misusing the responsibility given to us. God’s care was directed especially to us humans who had a protective home in a ‘garden’, but it also extended to fallen humanity when Adam and Eve were clothed and cared for after the fall and when God made the protective sign on Cain. The family of Noah with the animals in the ark were spared during the destructive deluge of God’s wrath.
God’s caring ministry accompanied the families of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebeccah, Jacob and especially Joseph in Egypt through whom God saved His people from starvation. Through Moses God became the redeemer of the oppressed, freeing the Israelites from foreign bondage. With the sign of the uplifted snake in the desert,
which has become the symbol of the health ministry, God saved from death and illness. In Exodus 15:26, we read of God as “physician or healer”. Jesus would see in God the caring Parent to whom we can turn with all our needs, as he expressed it in the Lord’s Prayer.
God cares for the faithful through the Law and Grace. The commandments are meant to protect the different relationships, between God and us, with our fellow humans, ourselves and the world. God calls us to protect society, by respecting those in authority, protecting life in all its forms, regulating relationships especially between the sexes, honouring values, respecting the good name and integrity in public, and by supporting individual and common property, gifts and talents.
The prophets are symbols of a caring ministry when they stand up – often with harsh words – against those who go astray and thereby miss true life. They castigate especially the leaders and those who egocentrically suppress the poor, the widows and orphans, instead of caring for them.
For the people in foreign captivity and bondage, having lost their freedom and their centre of spiritual worship, the prophets bring words of comfort and support (e.g. Isaiah 40 and 43) and witness to the love, charity and grace of God who loves “with an everlasting love” (Jeremiah 31:3).
Jesus’ compassionate care
God renewed the promise of caring for the faithful and the whole fallen world by sending Jesus the Christ, into the world as the saviour, and the name ‘Jeshua’ means ‘God saves’. The Gospels tell us how Jesus healed the sick, gave sight to the blind, cared for the crippled,
raised from death, invited the outcast, visited the disgraced, gave hope to the poor (Luke 4:18-21). “When he saw the crowds, Jesus had compassion on them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd” (Matthew 9:36). He called the disciples to witness to and become involved in God’s caring ministry. And having received the Holy Spirit as comforter at Pentecost we see them healing and helping, supporting and protecting the needy in such a way that even others spoke of the early Christians “see, how they love each other”.
Paul would emphasize the saving ministry of Jesus in His suffering, dying and resurrection for us in the ‘theology of the cross’. He identifies the congregation/church with the living body of Christ in which one member suffers with the other, and we are thereby called to support and care for each other. In many of the New Testament letters we are called to support, visit, heal and pray for those in need.
Expressing our care and hurt
When we do not find words to express our loss, pain, and hurt feelings we can turn to words and prayers of those who have cried out theirs in the many different situations as expressed in the psalms. Here we find expressions of hurt, lamentations, of calling for help or of praising God. We also find these in other biblical books as of Job where his friends accompany him in silence and then in trying to find an answer to the question why God allows suffering. The story of Jonah and his prayer, which filled the belly of the fish, has become the sign of Jesus dying for us and at the lowest point of his humbleness and obedience being raised again to glory. Throughout the history of the church people have expressed their experiences in prayers, in hymns and songs, in music and even works of art which can become so vital for the caring ministry to give voice to what is often so difficult to express.
Care of forgiveness
In church history there was a time when caring was emphasized more in a spiritual sense as the ministry of forgiving sins. We need to ask ourselves how important it is for us today when we can participate in Confession and Holy Communion. Here loads of worry, anxiety and fear can be relieved by handing over our lives and by receiving the Lord into the presence of our lives.
With the expansion of Christianity in the time of missionary outreach, the caring ministry found new forms in the church. Not only mission stations with churches and dwellings were developed but also schools for the furthering of education, the ministry of visiting and inviting those who did not know Christ. Later hospitals were erected and a special ministry of compassion took care of the needy. In the times of colonialism and Apartheid, when discriminatory laws were being introduced, the church participated in the struggle for the victims.
However it is also part of our history that we as church have often neglected our basic duty of caring and are ourselves in need of care, forgiveness and reconciliation. The church itself is a “wounded healer” and can only take care of others in the knowledge that we are ourselves ‘a community of sinners who live only by the grace of God’ and need forgiveness continually.
Although many institutions have been taken over by the state or by nongovernmental organisations (NGOs) the church still has a special place in the caring ministry. We do not have to compete with the expanding governmental or private health system with its many services in our country with its doctors and nurses, psychiatrist and psychologists, hospitals and clinics, mental and frail care institutions. It is however important to recognise that members of our congregations and churches are active in these caring communities and are supporting them.
Called to care
When the reformers discovered anew the priesthood of all believers they wanted to strengthen the households by letting the house-father or mothertake overthe priestly functions at home. We have expanded this to the congregation and church as a whole that not only at home in our families but also in the Bible – interest, or working groups we can be there for one another. The Golden Rule that we should “do to others as we expect them to do to us” calls us to participate and become active from our side and take initiative. It is not responsible behaviourfor us to expect the congregation to care for us, if we simply withdraw and do not care for others. It is therefore essential that we find or help to found a group, usually in our own congregation, in which we can feel at home and where we can share with and thereby care for one another.
We are called to rediscover the way in which God cares for us and how Jesus Christ responded to the challenges of his time. We are not charged to care for everybody but to give an ear to the one lonely person next to us, to invite one person we know who feels side-lined, to become a family friend for one who lives in a dysfunctional family, of accepting, without being judgemental, one person who has gone astray. To feed the hungry, to visit the sick, to start a support group for specific despondent people are not duties and responsibilities of world-wide organisations, but is a primary duty for every individual Christian; although it would be much easier to accomplish this in partnership with others and such initiatives should be supported. How many medical bills could be saved if we made more use of private confession, of sharing with another Christian our past hurts, of finding healing for our wounded lives, of carrying our load with one another? For that we need open ears, caring hearts, tongues that do not gossip,
hands that can touch, words that can speak the truth openly and yet also give comfort. May God make us a caring community.
Rev Georg Scriba [KZNCC Executive Member]
The individuals listed in the database below have committed themselves to offer support wherever there is a need on a purely voluntary basis and for this we would like to offer sincere thanks to each of them as well as the organisations that participate in this initiative.
|UGU REGION – Harding, Port Shepstone & Surroundings – SKZNCC||Area of Operation||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling||SocialWorker
|Healing of Memories & Pastoral Counselling|
|Durationof Counselling||over 7-10 years||over 7-10 years||over7-10
|1-3 years||over 7-10 years|
|Qualifications||Diploma – T ogy, Christian Counselling||Diploma in Theology||Diploma in Theology||Social Worker||Diploma in Theology|
|Postal Address||P.O Box 1782 Port Shepstone 4242||P.O Box 269Harding
|P.O Box 2475 Port Shepstone 4240||16 LuggsideRoad
|P.O Box 50350 Port Shepstone 4240|
|W/Tel/Cell||0836730092 0396821834||0722353368 0820662579||0827163276 0826294996||0849549530 0396821834||0824252141 0396877311 ext 158|
|Age||35-45 years||35-45 years||over 45 years||25-35 years||over 45 years|
|Organisation/ Church||Africa Apostolic Mission Church||Christian Holiness||S.A Evangelical Mission||Ziphakamise, Assemblies of God||AfricaEvangelical
|Name||Rev Protus Sandile||RevSbusiso||RevKhayalethu||RevThandeka||RevJonathan|
|UGU REGION – Harding, Port Shepstone & Surroundings – SKZNCC||Area of Operation||Pastoral – Home- based Care||Pastoral Counselling & Trauma||Pastoral Counselling, Lobby & Advocacy||Pastoral Counselling & Healing of Memories||Pastoral Counselling|
|Durationof Counselling||5-7 years||over7-10
|over 7-10 years|
|Qualifications||Diploma in Theology||Diploma – Theology||Diploma – Theology||Diploma – Theology||PhD – Theology|
|Postal Address||PortShepstone||P.O Box 177 Gamalakhe PortShepstone 4249||P.O Box 177 Gamalakhe PortShepstone 4249||MandelaPride
|P.O Box 511 Port Shepstone|
|W/Tel/Cell||0734384252 0795464867||0735337828 0735572242||0735337828 0735572242||0741386052 0842072513||0396821834 0839907728|
|Age||25-35 years||over 45 years||over 45 years||over 45 years||over 45 years|
|Name||Ps Thabani||RevNozipho||RevKenneth||RevAbraham||Dr Lulu|
|MIDLANDS REGION – Pietermaritzburg & Surroundings – PACSA||Area of Operation||Pastoral Care and Counselling, Trauma Counselling||Counselling||Counselling||Trauma,Marriage,
|Durationof Counselling||3-5 years||over7-10
|Qualifications||Masters of Theology (Clinical Pastoral Care & Counselling)||Organisation||Healing of Memories/ Lobbying, Advocacy||MA Social Science / Clinical Psychology|
|Postal Address||P.O Box 2693 Pietermaritzburg||2nd Floor Gallway House Gallway Lane 3201||P.O Box 291Edendale
|300 Bulwer St Pietermaritzburg 3201|
|W/Tel/Cell||0832050689 0333420052||0333454945||0784895142 0825224047||0333451185|
|Age||35-45 years||20years||25-35 years||35-45 years|
|Name||Mr Charles||FAMSA||MsSli||Mr and Mrs Willows|
|MIDLANDS REGION – Pietermaritzburg & Surroundings – PACSA||Area of Operation||Psychology||Psychology, Counsellor, Motivational Speaker||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling|
|over 7-10 years||1-3 years||1-3 years|
|Qualifications||MAPsychology||Honours in Social Science||Diploma – Theology||Diploma – Theology||Basics in Counselling|
|Postal Address||P.O Box 5 Bisley 3203||P.O Box 2605 PMB 3201||P.O.Box 3672 PMB 3200||Postnet 235 P/Bag X6 Cascades PMB 3201||Postnet 235 P/Bag X6 Cascades PMB 3201|
|W/Tel/Cell||0333457110||0828946571 0332510645||0827632369 0728997897||0827211078 0333860151||0710124420 0333860151|
|Age||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years||35-45 years|
|Organisation /Church||Private Psychologist||Fikuzo- phumula Zinandi Zonke||Africa Evangelical Church||Methodist Church||Methodist Church|
|Name||Ms Anne||Mrs Getwani||Rev Clement||Rev Siphiwo||Ms Kagiso|
|MIDLANDS REGION – Pietermaritzburg & Surroundings – PACSA||Area of Operation||Drug & Alcohol Dependency||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling & Home-based Care||Pastoral Counselling|
|Durationof Counselling||0-1 year||over7-10
|Qualifications||Honours in Theology||Diploma – Theology||Diploma – Theology||Diploma – Theology||B.ATheology|
|Postal Address||Postnet 235 P/Bag X6 Cascades PMB 3201||759 Siwela Road Imbali Unit 13 PMB 3201||B40Msimanga Rd
Ashdown PMB 3216
|P.O Box 2361 Edendale PMB 3225||P.O Box 11153 Dorpspruit PMB 3206|
|W/Tel/Cell||0762054413 0333860150||0845531852 0333222809||0731981167 0333981810||0795818433 0764749949||0835456574 0333902536|
|Age||35-45 years||35-45 years||over 45years||35-45 years||35-45 years|
|Organisation /Church||Methodist Church||AfricaOrthodox
|Sobantu Community Church in Africa|
|Name||MsGaolathlwe||Rev Patrick Mkhaliseni||Rev Sibusiso||Rev Harrison||Rev Thulani|
|MIDLANDS REGION – Pietermaritzburg & Surroundings – PACSA||Area of Operation||Counselling , Trauma & Home-based Care||Pastoral Counselling, Trauma & Crisis||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling|
|over 7-10 years|
|Qualifications||Diploma – Theology||Diploma – Theology||Doctor of Philosophy||Diploma – Theology||Doctor of Philosophy||BTH & Honours – Theology|
|Postal Address||7 Goodhope Road The Grange PMB 3201||P.O Box 101071 Scottsville 3209||50 Langal- balele St PMB 3201||P/Bag X9005 Postnet Suite 40 PMB||School of Theology UKZN PMB||50 Langali- balele St PMB 3201|
|W/Tel/Cell||0333869392 0849765705||0727435939 0338450400||0837353003 0333454819||0827458131 0824053931||0823430693 0332605850||0823717647 0333454819|
|Age||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years||25-35 years||over 45years||over 45years|
|Organisation /Church||Life Bible Church||Assemblies of God||KZNCC||God’s Victory Family Church||UKZN||KZNCC|
|Surname||Hlatshwayo||Mculwane||Dziva||Phoswa||Khumalo||Zondi – Mabizela|
|Name||Rev Tebo||Rev Jabu||Dr Douglas||Rev Sipho||Dr Smanga||RevPhumzile|
|MIDLANDS REGION – Pietermaritzburg & Surroundings – PACSA||Area of Operation||Pastoral Counselling, Healing of Memories||Pastoral Counselling, Healing of Memories||Pastoral Counselling, Healing of Memories||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling, Memory Work|
|Durationof Counselling||1-3 years||over7-10
|over 7-10 years||over7-10
|Qualifications||Degree – Theology||PhD – Theology||Masters of Theology||Standard 10||Diploma -Theology
|Postal Address||P.O Box 46246Bishopstowe 3252||P.O Box 2035 PMB 3209||P.O Box 101410 Scottsville 3209||P O Box 594Richmond
|P.O Box 685 PMB 3209|
|W/Tel/Cell||0846507896 0333901615||0722541341 0333868438||0834296994 0333863610||0745666697 0827632369||0761450693 0710236623|
|Age||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years|
|Organisation /Church||Lutheran Church||Africa Evangelical Church||Africa Evangelical Church||Imvu- selelo Apostolic Church||Episcopal MissionaryChurch|
|Name||RevKhayelihle||Dr Lucas Mogashudi||RevThembinkosi||RevMandleni Josiah||RevThandanani Albert|
|MIDLANDS REGION – Pietermaritzburg & Surroundings – PACSA||Area of Operation||Pastoral Counselling, Pyscho-Social Support|
|Durationof Counselling||over 7-10 years|
|Qualifications||Masters of Theology|
|Postal Address||UKZN, P/ Bag X01 Scottsville 3209|
|Organisation /Church||Lutheran Church|
|Area of Operation||Clinical Psychology||Pastoral Counselling|
|TAMCC||Qualification||M.APsychology||Diploma – Theology|
|.adysmith & Surroundings –||Postal Address||P.O Box 1095 Dundee 3000||P.O Box 9703 Vryheid 3100|
|X ro u_||0865411819|
|z oLU CC
|Work Tel/ Cell||0829029831 0342121533||0739402445 0727436750|
|zrsi D||Age||over 45 years||over 45 years|
|< < $LU ~>||Organisation /Church||ChristianChurch
|THUKELA AMAJUBA UMZINYATHI REGION – Ladysmith & Surroundings – TAMCC||Area of Operation||Counselling / Trauma, Lobby & Advocacy||Counselling||Counselling||Counselling||Clinical Psychology||Counselling & Spiritual Adviser|
|over 7-10 years||over7-10
|Qualification||Diploma – Theology||Degree – Social Worker||Degree – Social Worker||Degree in Social Science||Degree – Psychology||Diploma – Theology|
|Postal Address||P.O Box11792
|P.O Box 58 Ladysmith 3370||P.O Box 58 Ladysmith 3370||P.O Box28723
|P/Bag X9909 Ladysmith 3370||P.O Box 2940Ladysmith 3370|
|Work Tel/ Cell||0835480872 0834122900||0366311184||0366311184||0820967432 0366355001||0828173569 0366372111||0366377640 0837857640|
|Age||35-45 years||35-45 years||over 45 years||25-35 years||35-45 years||over 45 years|
|Organisation /Church||Fountain of Life Ministries||ChristianSocial
|Provincial Hospital||Christian in Faith Gospel Church|
|Name||Rev Sibusiso||Ms Simangele||Rev Rod||Ms Thembi||Mr Sipho||Rev Victor|
|THUKELA AMAJUBA UMZINYATHI REGION – Ladysmith & Surroundings – TAMCC||Area of Operation||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral CareHealing of Memories HIV & Aids Counselling||Pastoral CareHIV & Aids Counselling|
|Duration ofCounselling||over 7-10 years||over 7-10 years||10years||15years|
|Qualification||Degree in Theology||Diploma – Theology||Diploma||TrainedFacilitator &
|Postal Address||P.O Box 376Ladysmith 3370||P.O Box 376Ladysmith 3370||P.O. Box 4495Madadeni 2951|
|Work Tel/ Cell||0723404065 0366353128||0366353128 0827428880||0825175656||0765958381|
|Age||35-45 years||over 45 years||over 35||over 50|
|Name||Rev Gugu||Rev Isaac||Rev Thulani||Mrs Florence|
|KWAZULU REGION & Surrounding Areas – KRCC||Area of Operation||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling||Lobby &Advocacy,
|Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling|
|Duration of Counselling||over7-10
|Qualification||Theology & Democracy Advocacy||Theology & Democracy Advocacy||Diploma – Theology, Counselling & Advocacy||Certificate – Theology||Diploma – Theology||PhDTheology, Christian Coalition|
|Postal Address||P.O Box 4074 Eshowe 3815||P.O Box 479Esikhawini 3887||P.O Box 1898Empangeni 3880||P.O Box 418 Empangeni 3880||P.O Box 1011 Eshowe 3815||P.O Box 787Melmoth
|Work Tel/Cell||0749635455 0354749303||0786973012 0760534513||0833649574 0357951777||0726615298 0734239468||0820454307 0728411559||0747959698 0733100364|
|Age||35-45 years||25-35 years||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years|
|Organisation/ Church||Abundance LifeMinistry||EmoyeniFamily
|Baptist Church||ZCC/ Masi-zizane
|KwaZulu HelpMinist-ries Instit-ution|
|Name||RevBongumenzi||Rev Sduduzo||RevThembinkosi Cecil||Rev Peter||RevMbuyiseni Phillip||Dr Myekeni Maqhamu|
|KWAZULU REGION & Surrounding Areas – KRCC||Area of Operation||Orphanage, Facili-tator & Home- based Care||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling & Trauma Crisis||Pastoral Counselling||Counselling Crime Prevention & Rehabilitation|
|Duration of Counselling||over7-10
|Qualification||Mediator||Certificate – Theology||Diploma – Theology||Honours – Theology||Lobbying &Advocacy,
|Postal Address||P.O Box 11822 Melmoth 3835||P.O Box 106Mahlathini
|Pongolo||P.O Box 2047 Nongoma 3950||P.O Box 479 Empangeni 3880|
|Work Tel/Cell||0792936248 084498833||0835806509 0358703890||0733916265 0354741058||0766813408 0767252028||0762066330 0357960235|
|Age||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years||35-45 years||35-45 years|
|Organisation/ Church||Ikwezi Development Organ isation||EvangelicalLutheran
|Methodist Church||Lutheran Church||OFREMO|
|Name||Mr Bhekisisa Samson||RevSangiphile||RevMpumzeni||Rev Tebogo||Mr Nhlanhla|
|KWAZULU REGION & Surrounding Areas – KRCC||Area of Operation||TraumaCounselling &
|Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling , Trauma, Healing of Memories||Pastoral Counselling||Human- ita rian & Peace Keeping, Guidance & Counselling|
|Duration of Counselling||3-5 years||3-5 years||over7-10
|over 7-10 years||over7-10
|Qualification||Counselling &Facilitation||Certificate – Theology||Certificate – Theology||Diploma Theology||Bachelor ofEducation,
|Postal Address||P.O Box 79 KwaDlang- ezwa 3886||P.O Box 543Eshowe
|P.O Box 233Melmoth
|Postnet P/ Bag X588 Eshowe 3815||P.O Box7620
|Work Tel/Cell||0723532518 0357960235||0767925530 0715011489||0722792634 0736732248||0827546476 0354741058||0826724035 0354741058|
|Age||35-45 years||35-45 years||35-45 years||over 45years||over 45years|
|Organisation/ Church||OFREMO||Zion||National Christian Church||KRCC||KRCC|
|Name||Mr Bongani||Rev Fano Mjikeleni||RevMbekiseni||Rev Bheki||Mr Mxolisi|
|KWAZULU REGION & Surrounding Areas – KRCC||Area of Operation||Counselling & Home- based Care|
|Duration of Counselling||over7-10
|Qualification||Theology & Democracy|
|Postal Address||Postnet P/ Bag X588 Eshowe 3815|
|Work Tel/Cell||0836138186 0354741058|
|DURBAN REGION – Durban & Surroundings – YMCA||Area of Operation||Pastoral Counselling, Marriage, Stress & Trauma||CommunityFacilitation
|Duration of Counselling||over7-10
|Qualification||Master of Education||Certificate inCounselling||BTh -Pastoral
|Postal Address||P.O Box 15384 Westmead 3608||P.O Box 10231 Ashwood 3605||P.O Box 34076 Northdene 4064|
|Work Tel/Cell||0847357987 0317031598||0837146417 0317032009||0836613315 0317081035|
|Age||over 45years||35-45 years||over 45years|
|Name||Ms Judy||MsJennifer||Rev Kevin|
|DURBAN REGION – Durban & Surroundings – YMCA||Area of Operation||Pastoral Counselling||Trauma & Stress Counselling||Counselling||Counselling|
|Duration of Counselling||3-5 years||3-5 years||1-3 years||3-5 years|
|Qualification||B Tech Law & Diploma in Education||Healing of Memories, Advocacy, Stress & Trauma||Student, UKZN||Certificate – Healing of Memories; Advocacy & Democracy|
|Postal Address||P.O Box 10231 Ashwood 3605||Room 56 Transnet Isiphingo 4110||YMCA 82 St Andrews St Durban 4000||82Diakonia Ave Durban 4001|
|Work Tel/Cell||0843331863 0317032009||0839255502 0313071716||0313071716 0784895142||0737955054 0313071716|
|Age||35-45 years||35-45 years||25-35||25-35 years|
|DURBAN REGION – Durban & Surroundings – YMCA||Area of Operation||Refugee Pastoral Care||Counselling, Pastoral Care & Trauma||Pastoral Care, Counselling||Family Services & Mediation, Counselling||Pastoral Counselling|
|Duration of Counselling||5-7 years||over7-10
|over 7-10 years||over 7-10 years|
|Qualification||Masters in Peace Studies||B.ATheology, BTh, PhD||Diploma – Theology||B.A Social Work||Bachelor of Arts|
|Postal Address||11Meydian Court St Georges St Durban 4001||P.O Box520
Hammers- dale 3700
|Kwa- Mashu Durban 4001||7 Rich Road New Germany Pinetown||P.O Box 24259 Esiphingo 4110|
|Work Tel/Cell||0767220539 0313077298||0721732301 0317740774||0834810054||0744493741 0317054478||0849166543 0313103555|
|Age||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years||over 45years|
|Organisation/ Church||Refugee Pastoral Care Coordinator||EphophianCatholic
|Name||Theophile||ProfWellington||Rev Aubry||Ms Brenda||Rev Cyril|
|DURBAN REGION – Durban & Surroundings – YMCA||Area of Operation||Pastoral Counselling||Pastoral Counselling & Counselling Healing of Memories|
|Duration of Counselling||over 7-10 years||over 10years|
|Qualification||Diploma in Theology||BSc SocSocial
|Postal Address||P.O.Box 220 Tongaat 4400||P.O.Box 10112 Ashwood 3605 Pinetown|
|Work Tel/Cell||0724306701 0798590901||0767972656 0317001811 (T/F)|
|Age||over 45years||over 35years|
|Name||Rev Alyson Mshiyeni||RevMpendulo|
|Abbreviations||Key to Abbreviations|
|MCC||Mennonite Central Committee|
|YMCA||Young Men’s Christian Association|
|PACSA||Pietermarizburg Agency for Christian Social Awareness|
|SKZNCC||Southern KZN Christian Council|
|IDAMASA||Interdenominational African Ministers Association of South Africa|
|D.O.H||Department of Health|
|TAMCC||Thukela Amajuba Mzinyathi Christian Council|
|UKZN||University of KwaZulu-Natal|
|KRCC||KwaZulu Regional Christian Council|
|zee||Zion Christian Church|
|OFREMO||Offenders Rehabilitation and Reintegration Movement|
|KZNCC||KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council|
UNIVERSITY OF KWAZULU-NATAL,
SCHOOL OF RELIGION & THEOLOGY
Ujamaa Centre instills hope and nurtures positive living among affected people through workshops and awareness-raising activities, and forms community-support groups for people living with HIV and AIDS.
Private Bag X01 Scottsville, Pietermaritzburg 3201 Tel/Fax 033 260 5850 Email www.ukzn.ac.za
THUKELA-AMAJUBA-MZINYATHI CHRISTIAN COUNCIL
offers skills training for local clergy to heal the wounds of political violence, farm-related conflicts, and the pain and trauma caused by the HIV and AIDS pandemic, as well as encouraging dialogue between churches of different race groups.
84 Murchison St, Dedekind Building, Suite 5, LADYSMITH,3370 Tel 036 6353128 Fax 036 6372074 Email email@example.comKWAZULU REGIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL
offers skills development processes for individuals and groups who have experienced political, domestic, taxi and farm violence, and those who have been affected by HIV and AIDS.
P.O. Box 38062, Eshowe, South Africa 3894 office No. 1,114 Osborne Road., Eshowe, 3815 Tel/Fax+27 (35) 4741058
PIETERMARITZBURG AGENCY FOR CHRISTIAN SOCIAL AWARENESS (PACSA)
builds bridges between church communities of different backgrounds so that they can
work together on projects that will alleviate socio-economic problems in their communities.
Pietermaritzburg Agency for Christian Social Awareness
170/174 Hoosen Haffejee Street; Pietermaritzburg, 3201
- 0. Box 2338, Pietermaritzburg, 3200
Tel 033 342 0052 Fax 033 342 0303 Website www.pacsa.org.za
helps people deal with the problem of racism, xenophobia and other group-based intolerances in their own lives and in the life of the church and broader society. As a result of courses on managing diversity, people make positive interventions towards a more inclusive, tolerant, just and reconciled society.
PO Box 88, Botha’s Hill, 3660
Tel +27 31 777 1446 Fax +27 31 777 1443 Email firstname.lastname@example.org
YOUNG MEN’S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION (YMCA KZN)
mobilises youth through its regional and district centres, and encourages young people to
participate in skills development processes and healing of memories sessions.
82 Diakonia Avenue, 4001
Tel 031-3074040 Fax 031-3013018627
DIAKONIA COUNCIL OF CHURCHES (DC of C)
provides training in stress and trauma management and creates cross-cultural reconciliation and healing of memories opportunities for local churches.
Phone + 27 31 310 3551 (Direct) + 27 31 310 3500 (Switchboard)
Fax + 27 31 310 3502 Cell +27 74 970 7882 Website www.diakonia.org.za
Men in the world of care giving
It is alleged, averagely that men approach caregiving as work or duty. Men in caregiving are prone to feel isolated. They can not speak freely about their work due to perceived stigma for being involved in work conventionally not meant for them. Men in caregiving work are susceptible to finding it difficult to juggling responsibilities. Men as human beings, in the world of caregiving are inclined it is supposed to experience exhaustion. It is a great challenge for men, it is assumed to take care of their spouses and parents.
But all this must change. Men must be prepared to get used to caregiving and enjoy caring. Men must be deeply involved in caregiving and must not feel predisposed to cultural and historical stereotyping which does not help humans, men and women to take care of one another. Caring for spouses and parents when they are ill should be an experience we know is inevitable and get prepared to do it beginning as early as now and today. One of the ways in which men as caregivers can get involved is by doing lobbying and advocacy activities in the following areas:
Lobbying and Advocacy Activities for Men as Caregivers
- Advocacy for communities’ peaceful core-existence ” … it is only in conditions of peace and stability that development challenges such as HIV/AIDS and providing the needs of the poor and vulnerable especially women, children and PLWHA could be tackled effectively” (Permanent Mission of Ghana to United Nations, sa). [Implement the Nelson Mandela Foundation (NMF) Social Cohesion Methodologies in Communities with special inclusion of men]
- Advocacy for Gender Equality in the Context of HIV and AIDS [Educate men on gender equality involving, SOFIA, Commission for Gender Equality, School of Religion and Theology, School of Politics, Seminaries and men from the ecumenical movement].
- “Advocacy in communities to change the perception that women are better caregivers than men” [NMF methodologies in communities]
- “Intensify advocacy to families for equal sharing of responsibilities and chores in the context of HIV and AIDS. ” [NMF methodologies in communities]
- Advocacy for women economic empowerment [cause access to economic empowerment training and programmes]
- Advocacy for the creation of space for treatment education for men as caregivers [give treatment education classes]
- Advocacy for encouraging men as treatment advocates and treatment counselors [practice treatment advocacy and counseling where it is needed]
- Advocacy for building networks of men’s organisations involved in caregiving [find data base and information about other organisations in caregiving business and ask for partnerships and networking]
- Advocacy for Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV and AIDS (GIPA) in health related decision making [bodies] at community, regional and provincial level in KZN [raise the point with the office of the premier’s health unit and the health department whenever the opportunity avails]
- Advocacy for networking health systems and organisations, people and actions whose primary interest is to promote, restore or maintain health (jiasociety.org) [find data base and information about other organisations in caregiving business and ask for partnerships and networking]
- Advocacy for PLWHA to be in medical schools and stay employed in the health sector [raise the point with the office of the premier’s health unit and the health department whenever the opportunity avails]
- Advocacy for promotion of PLWHA in senior and strategic positions in the health sector institutions [raise the matter with authorities in the health sector]
- Advocacy for basic health services for sex workers, M2M, transgender people, drug users and lesbians [raise the matter with authorities in the health sector]
- Advocacy for integrated health services to support PLWHA, TB, Malaria, sexually transmitted infections, sexual and reproductive health, mental health and HIV services (jiasociety.org) [raise the matter with authorities in the health sector]
■Advocacy for decriminalization of HIV transmission for women living with HIV and AIDS choosing to have children [challenge the health sector, ministry of health and justice]
- Advocacy for psychological support for PLWHA focused on people suffering from depression and related emotional illnesses [raise the matter with authorities in the health sector]
- Advocacy for Home Base Care structures rooted in organised community and ecumenical formations [raise the matter with authorities in the health sector]
- Advocacy for increased prevention strategies [raise the matter with authorities in the health sector]
- Advocacy for the central and lead involvement of PLWHA in all matters concerning strategies in the HIV and AIDS work [challenge organisations dealing with PLWHA]
- Advocacy for networking ‘support groups’ within KZNCC, KZNCAN, the health sector and organisations working in the arena of HIV and AIDS [consult related organisations and sources of information]
- Advocacy for the establishment of holistic and comprehensive wellness centres [raise the matter with authorities in the health sector]
- Advocacy for greater investment in the lives of PLWHA [challenge organisations dealing with PLWHA and government departments]
The Perception of Grants Benefits and Accessibility to Antiretroviral Treatment (ARVt) Among HIV Persons in South Africa: The Case of the KwaZulu-Natal Region
There are many studies being done on ARVt in South Africa. Each deals with different aspects of HIV and its treatment. However, living with HIV/AIDS is a challenge on its own, especially in the contexts where HIV infection still carries a stigma and consequently PLHA lack necessary social support.
One study on adherence observes that:
In such a situation adherence to therapy becomes an added challenge. Accomplishing the required near perfect adherence rate becomes all the more crucial considering the implications of drug and cross-drug resistance. Adherence to ARV treatment has been linked to, among other things, personal characteristics, patient treatment knowledge, faith in the efficacy of the drugs, social support, the relationship between the patient and the healthcare provider, drug availability, and an overall will to survive despite the odds (Cheever and Wu).
Antiretroviral therapy is characterized as complex: it requires a life long commitment, the combination of drugs to be taken at one time may be confusing and may cause side-effects, and there is usually the added burden of special dietary requirements (Cheever and Wu).
Onguro et al explains that many African countries have begun to develop large-scale prevention and treatment programmes. Governments of countries with high HIV incidence are acting in collaboration with international donor agencies to provide diagnostic treatment, drugs, laboratory infrastructure and medical personnel. Even so, the impacts are still limited and HIV patients must often fend for themselves, especially with the remaining costs of diagnostics and drug treatment.
The Public Health Matters has reported in Which Patient First? Setting Priorities for Antiretroviral Therapy Resources Are Limited that:
Developing countries now face the challenge of implementing these ARV delivery programmes. Open, public discussion about patient selection- or- rationing, has largely been avoided in recipient countries. It is possible that government officials fear the potentially divisive consequences of open discussions about who receives access to a life saving medication available in only limited quantities (Laura et al. 2008).
However, goes on Laura et al, avoiding a decision about rationing does not mean that decisions are not made, “Passive decisions”, that is limited access to patients who have already tested positive for HIV or live near a clinic site, favour those with economic, political or social power.
Yet again, with the rapid expansion of ARV therapy under new programmes such as the Global Fund and the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)—especially, but not only, in Sub-Saharan Africa, more patients are now or will be receiving ARV therapy. These programmes have established treatment targets that are widely regarded as ambitious and challenging, but will nonetheless reach only about 50% of those urgently needing ARV therapy.
South Africa has one of the highest HIV infections rates in the world. The HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending public sector antenatal clinics in 2004 was approximately 30% nationally, and 41% in KwaZulu-Natal, the most populous province. Several national household surveys have also reported very high prevalence: 12% among men and 20% among women aged 15-49 years in 2005, and 5% among men and 16% among women aged 14-24 years in 2003 (Welz et al 2007).
Welz et al concluded that “…the extremely high prevalence of HIV suggests an urgent need to allocate adequate resources for HIV preparation and treatment in rural areas. Effective monitoring of the epidemic in Africa needs to include efforts to strengthen sentinel surveillance in rural areas and strategies for surveillance of migrants and mobile individuals.
Report on Incentive Structures of Social Assistance Grants in South Africa, done in 2005 by the South African Department of Social Development, stated:
…The provision of social assistance benefits constitutes the largest part of the government’s poverty alleviation programme. By December 2005, a total of 10.6 million people, including approximately 7 million children, were benefiting directly from the various grant types.
The report continues on, stating that with increasing HIV/AIDS rates throughout the country, the numbers of those benefitting from social grants is likely to increase significantly. While these grants have the potential to benefit and improve the overall health and well-being of impoverished South Africans, there are many concerns related to the proliferation of social grants, especially in regards to HIV/AIDS and individuals adherence to antiretroviral treatments (ARVt).
Among the various types of social grants distributed by the Department of Social Development and the South African Social Security Agency, is the Disability Grant, which is likely the most common grant received by individuals. This particular type of grant is available to individuals who meet the following qualifications: South African citizen / permanent resident; must be resident in South Africa at the time of application; must be between 18 to 59 years of age if a female and 18 to 64 years of age if a male; must submit a medical / assessment report confirming disability; and spouse must meet the requirements of the means test; must not be maintained or cared for in a State Institution; must not be in receipt of another social grant in respect of yourself; must submit 13 digit bar coded identity document (SASSA).
Distribution of Disability Grants to those living with HIV & AIDS could potentially be very helpful in covering the expenses incurred by treatment. In Understanding Barriers to Community Participation in HIV and AIDS Services, a summary report put out by the Health Systems Trust and Population Council, estimates costs for treatment at: R160 per comprehensive treatment visit, of which 26 are required annually, and R235 per month for first line regimen drugs, plus additional costs for laboratory visits, additional medications, transportation to and from clinics, plus food.
Individuals who have CD4 counts below 200 are considered eligible for these grants and could potentially use these funds to access antiretroviral treatment. The Health Systems Trust believes that, “Households with social grants can/should make strategic choices about accessing health services.” However, according to the Health Systems Trust report:
Using CD4 counts as eligibility criteria for accessing grants precludes many from receiving desperately needed funds and may have several negative effects on treatment and prevention efforts. These include poor nutrition and resultant poor health outcomes for people living with HIV and lack of access to services, which potentially increases drop out rates and the number of adherence defaulters.
Despite its potential to be effective in curtailing the spread of HIV & AIDS, more often than not, perverse incentives motivate individuals to access the Disability grant. The Department of Social Development’s report on incentive structures have found that, “…Local evidence also suggests many instances where applicants change their behaviour in order to obtain the Disability Grant, although much of the evidence remains anecdotal.” The behaviours that the Department of Social Development are most concerned about in regards to accessing the Disability Grant are:
- Self infection with infected materials;
- Engaging in deliberately risky behaviour; and
- Failure to take health enhancing medicines or operations in order to stay sick and continue claiming the disability grant.
Due to the fact that social grants are distributed at the governmental level, it is the responsibility of the each, under the rules put forth by the Constitution and the Municipal Systems Act (2000), “.. .compels all of South Africa’s newly demarcated municipalities to formulate Integrated Development Plans (IDPs), which must stipulate how the municipality intends to address, among other issues, the heath care needs of its population, including those related to HIV/AIDS.” KwaZulu-Natal, being the most populous province, consequently has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the country. Because of the urgency and severity of the HIV/AIDS crisis in KZN, the Msunduzi Municipality in conjunction with the Urban Management Programme, Sub- regional Office for Africa created The Msunduzi HIV/AIDS Strategy A Partnership Response to HIV/AIDS at Local Government Level, the goals of which are to:
The Msunduzi Municipality’s HIV/AIDS Strategy is one of the first attempts by local government in South Africa to actively address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Launched in November 2001, the Strategy brings together a range of government and civil society actors within the city in a partnership. Facilitated by the municipality, the process aims to achieve a more coherent, organized and effective response to HIV/AIDS in the municipality.
It is imperative that local governments continue to be play a central role in preventing, and reducing the impacts of HIV/AIDS because, “the fact that local government is the level of government closest to the people and that it has powers assigned to it, and has unique resources at it its disposal, which can be used in efforts to prevent and mitigate the impacts of HIV/AIDS” (Msunduzi Municipality).
HIV and AIDS Strategy for the Province of KwaZulu-Natal 2006-2010. South Africa. Province of
KwaZulu-Natal. Office of the Premier. Pietermaritzburg, 2006. 1-87.
The Msunduzi HIV/AIDS Strategy A Partnership Response to HIV/AIDS at Local Government Level.
South Africa. Msunduzi Municipality. Urban Management Programme. Pietermaritzburg, 2003. Steele, Mark, comp. Report on Incentive Structures of Social Assistance Grants in South Africa. South
Africa. Department of Social Development. 2006. I-B-9.
Understanding Barriers to Community Participation in HIV and AIDS Services. Health Systems Trust &
The Population Council. Johannesburg, 2006.
Welz et al. (2007). Continued very high prevalence of HIV infection in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A Population based longitudinal study. Du
The Sociological and Religious Experiences of People on Antiretroviral Treatment: Concern for Human Dignity, Problems of Access and Affordability, Programmes of Counselling, Supervision and Care
Introduction: This research project on people on Antiretroviral Treatment (ARVt) has now been completed. As the sample will show, 800 people on ARVt have been interviewed across the province of KwaZulu- Natal (KZN). This research report shows the duration of the project. The project started on the 5th of December 2005 and ended on the 26th March 2006. A provincial conference where the research will be presented by people on ARVt is planned for the 31st March 2006. The conference shall be held at the Diakonia Council of Churches. The presentation shall be made to the ecumenical movement especially the KwaZulu-Natal Church Leaders Group (KZNCLG) whom are expected to take the findings forward to the ministry of health in particular and all relevant and related institutions such as churches themselves.
This report spells out the hypothesis, the aims and objectives, the research methodologies and the process of questionnaire construction. The report constitute the composition of researchers, the sample, delimitations and the interpretation of findings including some recommendations for churches, ecumenical agencies as well as the health sector. As the topic suggests, this has been a social and religious research exercise. Though we had to work with people who are asking medical questions, this research does not begin to claim nor were it ever aimed to provide health science suggestions but social and religious ones.
- Duration of the Project: This project was designed to be a four months exercise, commencing as soon as a high level of consensus is achieved from the participating ecumenical organisations through their Directors and the KZNCC Executive Committee and the Churches Provincial Advocacy Office (CPAO) Advisory Board. The desired high level of consensus could not be achieved in a short spell of time remaining for the implementation of the project. The CPAO Advisory Board allowed the project to proceed under the prevailing circumstances. The project was begun from the 5th December 2005 and ended on the 26th March 2006.
- The Statement of the Problem: The regional ecumenical agencies and the Ujamaa Centre examined the ‘real life’ problem and concern from people on Antiretrovirals (ARVs). This,
according to the ‘animation’ approach, was appropriate for the people on ARVs themselves to tell us what to investigate, if we were to do a research concerning their lives. The ‘animation’
approach meant that the field workers would themselves, as agents of change, be immersed in the life and experiences of people on ARVs. This could best be done by people on ARVs themselves though there were a few other committed field workers who were doing field work as well. The people on ARVs examined what peculiar problem they will wish to unearth and together with them formulate recommendations which shall emerge from this exercise, for the purpose of lobbying the health ministry. The people on ARVs worked out the hypothesis of the research project which was tested in their various support groups across the province of KwaZulu-Natal.
The statement of the problem came out to be a concern for the social and spiritual struggles people on ARVs are engaged in, and which medical science does not seem to consider as part of the equation in search of ARV treatment (ARVt). The problem was discovered, could be in their own personal perceptions and experiences, their relation with family members, places of worship and the health sector.
may have to be influenced and shaped by the input from the very people on ARVs. The South African Catholic Bishops Conference (SACBC)1 is one body that has done this exercise already, though concentrating on the aspect of psychological effects. The aspects the KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council (KZNCC) attempt to pursue are, the sociological and the religious (theological), which shall deliberately be informed by the very people on ARVs.
The purpose of this choice stems from the ecumenical commitment to play a supportive and pastoral role in terms of serving the interests of and being in solidarity with – the poor on ARVs. The SACBC article2 by Sr Alison Munro, OP (2005: 4) reports on the spiritual and psychological support, she says: “… ongoing pastoral counselling, not only in adherence-related issues, is part of the programme, within the home-based care set-up or within the context of ARV-related services . faith commitment and walking the extra mile are key values not always found elsewhere. Church sites often do not have the same kinds of infrastructure one may find elsewhere, but the dedication to health care, often fuelled by a faith commitment, seems to underlie successful programmes”. The KZNCC’s hypothesis seeks to search on the social and religious effects on the human dignity of people who are on ARVs.
- Aims and Objectives:
- To interact with people on ARVs, to unearth the social and religious questions they are struggling with, for the purpose of entering their world and together seek ways of sailing through in hope.
- To discover from people on ARVs their experiences of caring and the denting of human dignity, from the health sector, church and society, for the reason of informing church leaders for the betterment of the situation by lobbying and advocacy.
- To draft a research document for presentation to the provincial ministry of health and affected ARV roll-out health centres for consideration and implementation with the advocacy office monitoring through the Provincial Ecumenical Advocacy Forum (PEAF) and by so doing strengthen the voices of the poor around this concern.
- Research Methods
- Narrative Research: People on ARVs were asked to tell their stories on personal experiences before and after taking ARVs; to tell how family and social interactions have changed; to tell how the religious sector has handled their situation and how the health sector is doing. The essays have been included in this report. A short analysis of the essays was done and recommendations made.
- Ethnomethodology: Ethnomethodology is fieldwork research method. Fieldwork is about investigating situations and relationships that constitute people’s daily lives (Sanders 1999: 47). Field work is also called naturalistic research – research that takes place within the natural setting of the social actor (Mouton 1998: 1). Ethnomethodology forces the researcher to enter the world of the people investigated. It involves the people researched in asking their own questions and structuring their own answers. In this way the answers are not manipulated by the prepared questions. The environment in which research is done is as natural as possible and is not threatening to the interlocutors. For the purpose of our research and doing justice to the ‘animation approach’ the research data collectors, the research team and the final interpretation of the research narrative has included people on ARVs.
Title: The Catholic Church and the provision of antiretroviral treatment. Sr. Alison Munro, OP. 4. The ‘animation approach’ referred to here is the one developed or coined by the Church Land Programme (CLP).1. The aims and objectives in this letter of consent have been directly derived from section 4. (4.1. – 4.3.) of the research design.
Though it is inevitable that the researcher has certain themes, and even questions, in mind, though these may not be written down, the interlocutors are given the freedom to determine what types of themes and questions would be of interest and importance to the research conducted. This is one advantage of ethnomethodology; i.e. that the agenda of the research is limited and is subjected to the felt questions of the interlocutors. The aim of the research is negotiated with the interlocutors.
According to Agnew and Pyke ethnomethodology is a ‘go-and-see’ method – the ‘eye ball’ technique, which is the core of field work method. “The essence of this science is the observation, description and interpretation of events a they occur in nature or naturally . This method requires no manipulation, no controlled experimentation, but, rather, the careful observation of episodes as they take place in their usual surrounding” (1982: 45).
- Unstructured Interviews: “The researchers who make use of unstructured interviews are [.] concerned with understanding (verstehen) rather than explanation; with naturalistic observation rather than controlled measurement and with the subjective exploration of reality from the perspective of an insider [who are people on ARVs, their experiences with society, church and health providers, caring, and socio-religious meaning of being on treatment], as opposed to the outsider perspective that is predominant in the qualitative approach” (Shrurink 1988: 137 additions mine).
- Participant Observation: For this part this research has drawn from the method proposed by Agnew and Pyke (1982). They suggest that participant observers are researchers who are directly involved in the socio-cultural life and activities of the group or community within which investigation is undertaken. Whilst social activities are happening, and researchers take part, the researchers gain first-hand experience of participating. Simultaneously, the researchers strive in their observation to be as objective as possible. In other words the researchers try not to make value judgements like ‘good’ or ‘bad’. ‘wrong’ or ‘right’, ‘beautiful’ or ‘ugly’. The researchers prevent their own biases, opinions, values, and beliefs from colouring their observation (1982:
Agnew and Pyke warn that the possible distortions a researcher may cause are brought by his [her] past experience. The mood of the time when the observation is done also adds to the possible distortion of the observation. Human fallibility makes the possibilities for distortion even greater. Researchers must be conscious of any misleading opinions, beliefs or attitudes they harbour (1982: 48).
“The ethnographer participates, overtly, in people’s daily lives for an extended period of time, watching what happens, listening to what is said, asking questions; in fact collecting whatever data are available to throw light on the issue with which he or she is concerned” (Hammersley and Atkinson 1983: 2). For the purpose of this research and the time allocated to it, the participation and observation of an outsider, a person who is not on ARVs may be too short and laden with possible distortions. The insiders, people on ARVs are natural participant observers and have been deliberately preferred to provide the data of this research report over the four months period.
Ethnomethodology happens most naturally when the investigators live with the people. Time has been made in this investigation to make sure that the ethnography is done accordingly. We tried to make findings factual and valid. In order to minimize the problems of reactivity and suspicion, we were complete participants. “A complete participant gets access to the inside information and experiences the world in ways that may be quite close to the ways other participants experience it. In the way greater access to participant perspectives may be achieved” (Hammersley and Atkkinson (1983: 97 – 98).
The method of participant observation as proposed by Hinsley (1983: 56) and Hammersley and Atkinson (1983: 97 – 98) is also supported by Lewis (1976: 24 – 26). According to Lewis the participant observers must immerse themselves in the community, and must know their language. In the case of this research, except for one who was nevertheless fluent and acquainted with the Zulu language and traditions, all the participant observers were insiders through and through in terms of the language and the experiences of being people on ARV treatment. Lewis advises that researchers must follow what is going on around them, and must record with accuracy and subtlety. The recording must not disturb the flow and volunteering of information from willing interlocutors. In the words of Lewis, ethnographers must ‘mix’ with the local people; become the ‘life and soul of the party’ and seize the essence of the life around them. Ethnographers must identify with the community; must go to places, homes and functions; which our researchers were natural participants and insiders in all the ways (1976: 25 – 26).
- The Use of a Structured Questionnaire: People on ARVs produced the structured questionnaire that was used. They also constructed the Zulu version of the questionnaire. After many meetings and long open discussions, people on ARVs agreed that the proposed structured questions must be taken to the fields to collect data from their own support groups and from other people of ARVt who are not in support groups. The same questions they agreed may be posed to the family members and close acquaintances to access how in turn they have socially and spiritually experienced people on ARVs before and after the decision to be on ARVs including what their fears and hopes were and whether they would encourage someone to make such a decision – to be on ARVs. In retrospect, the questionnaire was only focussing on people on ARVt.
- Process of Acquisition, Construction and Selection of Questions for Reporting Purposes
The provincial coordinator in the person of the Churches’ Provincial Advocacy Officer (CPAO), went to run regional workshops on collection and collation of questions each region was dealing with regarding people on ARVs. The ecumenical organisations’ regions covered were Tugela Mzinyathe Christian Council (TMCC), KwaZulu Regional Christian Council (KRCC), Practical Ministries (PM) in the South Coast and the Piertermaritzburg Midlands area assisted by the Ujamaa Centre. The Sinomlando Oral History Project assisted with the facilitation of the collection and collation, and categorisation of the questions as well as on how to do research using the Oral History Research Methodology.
Subsequently, a provincial workshop which included all the regions mentioned above was called for the purpose of further refining of the questions together, as the province. When a questionnaire was drawn, bearing in mind that people of ARVs were continually and consistently involved in the whole process; people on ARVs were called in to scrutinize the questionnaire. We were asking questions such as: Do we have to go to the field with these questions? Is it culturally acceptable to ask such questions? How would we react if we were asked the same questions? Do the questions serve the aims and objectives of the research design? Are the questions unambiguous and appropriate and so on. Each question which remained in the questionnaire that ultimately went to the field had to pass the test of such scrutiny.
When the questionnaires returned and data capturing proceeded, it became clear that still some questions which were scrutinised as they were, do not serve the immediate purpose of the purported research design for reporting purposes. People on ARVs agreed that such responses must be kept in the CPAO files and would be accessed when required. These were questions like: Question 2. 10 which asked – “Have you ever attempted to infect other people?” All the questions were revisited, and for the purpose of this report the content questions which began in section two to five (section one contained administrative questions) which ultimately passed the second test of the report writing stage were Questions 2.3 and 2.4; 3.3 and 3.6; 4.5 and 4.7; 5.5 and 5.7 herein reported and interpreted (see appendix 1 – the full questionnaire).
- Composition of Regional Data Collectors Including Coordinators and Consultants
20 people in all were doing data collection across the province = 100%
Male = 9 = 45%
Female = 11 = 55%
Graph 1: Male and Female Data Collection Team
|y 55 %||A|
- Sample: Our total population size is 800 people interviewed across the province. The interviewees (interlocutors/ participants) were selected at random. As the graphs below would show (graph 2 in this instance, 39% of people on ARVs interviewed were male and 61% were female. The largest number of interlocutors (60%) is from Midlands’s area, 12% from the Durban and surroundings, 2% from South Coast, 18% from Tugela Mzinyathi and 8% from KwaZulu region. Accordingly, data capturing observed the law of proportional representation. Though it has to be noticed that the report is provincially and not regionally interpreted. This is because this project was designed to be provincial.
- Geographical: The research was confined to the province of KwaZulu-Natal and around those places where there is an ecumenical agency participating in the Provincial Ecumenical Advocacy Forum (PEAF).
8.2. Focus: This research focussed on people on ARVs only, youth and adult.
- Targets: This research targeted people on ARVs who were in support groups and not excluding those who are not for they were found randomly and were willing to participate in answering questions.
- The Executive Summary: The general trend of perceptions and experiences of people on ARVt which come out of the observations, the interpretation and the recommendations made in this research show that first and foremost the church (places of worship) are seen a potential spaces where people on ARVt can rely on and get faith and hope in God. Second to the church is the family. This research reveals that family bonds and relationships with people on ARVt become warm and strong. Families are supportive and people on ARVt appreciate it. Not all is doom and gloom with the health sector. Some regions and health service centre must improve their social and religious relationships with people on ARVt.
- Interpretative Discussion of the Report: With the facilitation of the CPAO, the Midlands Coordinator and the regional support group leaders who are people on ARVt themselves help with
process of interpretation and constructing recommendations. People on ARVt and their support groups did the interpretation.
Graph 2: Q 1.1 Male and Female Interviewees
Interpretation of graph 2.:
- There were 61% females compared to 39% males interviewed.
- It is observed there are more females in support groups than males.
- It seems females are more willing to be organised and get them educated on ARVs than the male counterparts.
- Probably more females are willing to be responsible with healthy living than males.
Recommendations: That both church and government consider giving serious attention to male persons. Concentrate on organising men of ARVt and still do not neglect the needs of females and children regarding access to affordable and appropriate ARVt.
Graph 3: Q 2.3 Before ARVt has you experienced an increase in your faith in God?
Graph 4: Q 2.5 After starting ARVt have you experienced any decrease in your faith in God?
Interpretation of graph 3 and 4: Question 2.3 and 2.5 were in the same category of personal perceptions and experiences with special focus on the religious aspects:
- 7% people on ARVs had an increase in faith in God
- The growth in faith in God after ARVs were provided came to 48% which is a 21.3% increase. Provision of ARVs increase faith in God.
- Those who answered that they had frequent faith in God increase from 5.5% to 13.4% which is a 7.5 increase.
- Though those who answered ‘sometimes’ they had faith in God before ARVt increased from 8.8% to 13.2% (i.e. 4.4%); those who said they never experienced faith in God were reduced from 41.2% to 20.8% which means almost 20.4% began to have faith in God.
- Before ARVt 19.7% had faith in God always. After ARVt was proved 48% say they have faith in God always – an increase of 38.3%.
Recommendation: The support groups have become an alternative church. Shall the church therefore extend to provide their services of counselling, Bible studied, liturgies and socio- spiritual; support to the organised support groups. Shall the church encourage those who are not yet in support groups to begin to belong to an alternative source of faith and hope.
Graph 5: Q 3.3 Do they follow your treatment and give you support when needed?
Graph 6: Q 3.6 Have you ever felt as if anyone in your house does not want to get involved?
Interpretation of graph 5 and 6: Question 3.3 and 3.6 were in the same category on perceptions and experiences of people on ARVt concerning household members with special focus on the social relations aspects:
- Members of households give a lot of support (44.6%, graph 5) but 9% always do not want to get involved (graph 6).
- The majority of the family want to get involved (55%,graph 6) while it is noted that 19.8% do not give support (graph 5) a difference of 35% in favour of those who are supportive.
- On both graphs an equal 7% on average both frequently give support as well as dissociate themselves
Recommendation: The families through the churches and the health sector should be applauded and given the support for the good work they are doing to their loved ones. Health care training and resources should be directed to the families. The families are the most to absorb and alleviate the burden of caring and loving to people on ARVs in this instance, but not exclusively. Attention should be given to the empowerment and equipment of families for the absorption and relief of the social, political and economic consequences of not attending to matters of people living on ARVs not exclusively.
Graph 7: Q 4.5 Do you feel discriminated in your place of worship?
10.98%1 62.42% ■ Always
Graph 8: Q 4.7 Does place of worship help you have faith on ARVt?
Interpretation of graph 7 and 8: Question 4.5 and 4.7 in the category of perceptions and experiences of people on ARVt at places of worship with special focus on both the social aspect (discrimination) and the religious aspect (faith in ARVt):
- In regard to discrimination and encouragement to adhere to ARVt on both graphs, the response has been that 62.42% (graph 7) say they do not experience discrimination in their places of worship. It is observed that it could be that the churches (places of worship) have taken a positive turn in favour of accommodating and caring for people on ARVs, not exclusively.
- The churches (places of worship) are encouraging people to be on ARVt = 30.5% compared to 7% (graph 8) who say their places of worship rarely encourage them to be on ARVt (a difference of 23.5% in favour of encouraging treatment).
- It is interesting to observe 29% of people, say the places of worship never help them have faith in ARVt (almost equal to those who say places of worship do = 30.5% – a difference of 1.5% in favour.
- Then for those who say ‘sometimes’ places of worship help them resort to ARVt score 22.5% and when interpreted to favour the positive response, places of worship score 22.5% + 30.5% = 53%
Recommendation: The churches are encourage all the more not to turn back to the negative attitudes and discrimination and stigmatisation of people on ARVs (not exclusively) but continue to open its doors of loving, carking, support and understanding.
Graph 9: Q 5.5 Do you experience discrimination by the health care system?
People on ARVt, who were interpreting felt that question 5.5 graph 9, and 5.7 graph 10 must be treated separately.
- It was observed that the majority of the interlocutors (36.4%) on ARVt say they never experienced any discrimination by the health sector is good but not good enough. A concern was raised that this percentage has to be improved.
- Still, that even the meagre 8% who say they frequently experience discrimination by the health sector is too high to be ignored.
- That the 28.3% who say they always experience discrimination by the health sector raises a serious concern.
Recommendation: The research shows which health sectors, in which regions, have such a problem of discrimination against people on ARVt. The churches are asked to visit these centres health centres, to make their own observation, get in touch with support groups and individuals who have suffered discrimination and act appropriately. The churches are encouraged to meet with the individuals and support groups which say ‘sometimes’ do experience discrimination.
Graph 10: Q 5.7 Do you get required help from hospitals, when needed?
The discussion and interpretation group felt and agreed that concern should be shown to those who have had problems in accessing help and service in the health sector. That is, concentrate on those who responded that they ‘never’ and ‘sometimes’ get the required help from the heath sector.
– People on ARVt who say they never get the required help from hospitals scores 18.7% – this is almost 1 out of 5 people do not get help whilst they are already of ARVt is an issue calling for attention.
- That only 26.8% say they get the necessary help is too little and has to be improved, especially when people have been included in the treatment programme.
– That it is not good that 23.4%, another 1 out of 5 people of ARVs say they sometimes get help has to be addressed.
Recommendation: In a practical manner, the churches shall be provided with information about the health sectors which never help people on ARVt, to do their own observations, draw conclusions and pave the way forward to address the situation with the ministry of health.
i □ Q- in e>i □ Q- eo eo □ Q- to eo ■ Q- in □ Q- 4.7 ■ Q- in iri □ Q- .7 iri ” src=”file:///C:/Users/Steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image037.png” vspace=”7″ hspace=”7″ v:shapes=”_x0000_s1058″>Graph 11: Comprehensive Bar Graph
|tr||1 n n.||n r|
1: Never 2: Rarely 3: Sometimes 4: Frequently 5: Always
Observations: Q 4.5 answer 1 was on discrimination at places of worship which answered never scored the highest (above 60%). Followed by Q 3.6 which was on people in the household who do not want to be involved and the answer was never (About 55%). Followed by Q 2.3 which was on increase in faith in God (just above 40% increase)?
- The church is still one place of hope for people on ARVt.
- Social relations in the household become stronger when one is on ARVt
- Faith in God increases when one is on ARVt.
Recommendation: While the perceptions and experiences about the church faith and family are favourable according to people on ARVt, the church and family should maximise their effort in consolidating this social and religious relationship. The health sector should also endeavour to do the same by improving their situation according to the experiences and perceptions of the 800 people on ARVt who participated in this project.
See Research Questionnaire Attached Appendix 2
Collections of the Stories of People on ARVt and Experiences of Field Researchers Appendix 3
Letter/ Document of Consent
Research on People on ARVs Treatment Letter of Informed Consent: Consent to Participate in Research on the Social and Spiritual Shifts and Experiences by People on ARV Treatment
Introductions: The KwaZulu Natal Christian Council (KZNCC) seeks to do a sociological and religious research on people on ARV treatment. The details, on aims and objectives, confidentiality, publication, and intended utilisation of the information and such related matters, and the request for consent of participants are spelled out in this letter/ document of consent.
Aims and Objectives4
4.1. To interact with people on ARVs, to unearth the social and religious questions they are struggling with, for the purpose of entering their world and together seek ways of sailing through in hope.
4.2. To discover from people on ARVs their experiences of caring and the denting of human dignity, from the health sector, church and society, for the reason of informing church leaders for the betterment of the situation by lobbying and advocacy.
4.3. To draft a research document for presentation to the provincial ministry of health and affected ARV roll-out health centres for consideration and implementation with the advocacy office monitoring through the Provincial Ecumenical Advocacy Forum (PEAF) and by so doing strengthen the voices of the poor around this concern.
Protection to Right to Privacy and Confidentiality: The interlocutor is assured by KZNCC, the right to protection, privacy and confidentially regarding the information divulged.
Duration of Project: The project commences from the 5th of December 2005 to the 31st March 2006. Follow up processes and programmes shall be negotiated anew.
Procedures to be Subjected to: The participants shall be subjected to one-on-one interview, group interview, group interpretation and reflection, and adoption of the report at provincial conference 31st March 2006.
Benefits: According to the aims and objectives of this exercise, the advocacy office of KZNCC hopes a change of attitude from inhumane treatment to a humane treatment with human dignity, improvement of conditions from counselling programmes, supervision, affordability of treatment and access to facilities shall be affected. It is in the nature of social and religious processes of change, that much as some can be immediate and tangibly observables, in most cases they are gradual and sluggish and yet measurable.
Risks: A socio-religious research designed in this manner has a risk of miscalculation and misinterpretation of data.
Number of Participants: The maximum number of participants in this project is 1000 people covering the whole province of KwaZulu Natal.
Termination from Participation: The participants have a freedom of terminate from participation at any time during the research period and subsequent programmes emerging from these proceedings.
Publication and Use of Results: The research report ‘document’ shall be published at the envisaged conference. Quotations and other forms of acknowledgements shall be handled according to the agreements and approval of the participants observing privacy and confidentiality. The document shall be used as a lobbying and advocacy tool for the enhancement and betterment of the conditions of people on ARVs.
CPAO ARV Research Data Collectors
Practical Ministries Mr. Lizo Ngubane
Ms. Ruth Biyela Mr. David Memela
Mrs. Sanele Mgadi Mr. Musa Duma Mr. Andile Magubeni Ms. Cindi Dladla
Molly Khubeka Mr. Evans
Rev. Isaac Mgema Rev. Thami Dlamini Ms. Lindeni Tshabalala Mrs. Nomusa Ngubane Mr. Magubane
Rev. Sydney Mthethwa Mr. Lindeni Mavuso
Ms. Charity Mahlaba Ms. Thabile Ngubane Mrs. Vathiswa Magubeni
Mr. Paulo Mabote Mrs. Wendy Van Hollander
Recommendations Extracted from the Research Report ‘On People on Antiretroviral Treatment’, People Living with HIV/AIDS and the Provincial Poverty Exposure Trip
The KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council (KZNCC) through the office of the ‘Churches Provincial Advocacy’ in service to various ecumenical organisations and the KwaZulu-Natal Church Leaders Group (KZNCLG) has done research on people on Antiretroviral treatment (ARVt) and organised a provincial poverty exposure expedition. Following are recommendations extracted from the research reports.
Recommendations from the People on ARVt Research
Recommendations 1: We, people living with HIV/AIDS and have succeeded to be on ARTV treatment recommend that both church and government consider giving serious attention to male persons. Concentrate on organising men on ARVt to come to support groups meetings or get organised themselves and still do not neglect the needs of females and children regarding access to affordable and appropriate ARVt.
Recommendation 2: The support groups have become an alternative church. Shall the church therefore extend to provide their services of counselling, Bible studies, liturgies and socio- spiritual; support to the organised support groups. Shall the church encourage those who are not yet in support groups to begin to belong to this alternative source of faith and hope.
Recommendation 3: The families through the churches and the health sector should be applauded and given the support for the good work they are doing to their loved ones. Health care training and resources should be directed to the families. The families are the most to absorb and alleviate the burden of caring and loving to people on ARVs in this instance, but not exclusively. Attention should be given to the empowerment and equipment of families for the absorption and relief of the social, political and economic consequences of not attending to matters of people living on ARVs not exclusively.
Recommendation 4: The churches are encourage all the more not to turn back to the negative attitudes, discrimination and stigmatisation of people on ARVs (not exclusively) but continue to open its doors of loving, caring, support and understanding. v
Recommendation 5: The research shows which health sectors, in which regions, have such a problem of discrimination against people on ARVt. The churches are asked to visit the health centres, to make their own observation, get in touch with support groups and individuals who have suffered discrimination and thereafter act appropriately. The churches are encouraged to
meet with the individuals and support groups which say ‘sometimes’ do experience discrimination.
Recommendation 6: In a practical manner, the churches shall be provided with information about the health sectors which ‘never’ help people on ARVt, to do their own observations, draw conclusions and pave the way forward to address the situation with the ministry of health.
Recommendation 7: While the perceptions and experiences about the church, faith and family are favourable according to people on ARVt, the church and family should maximise their effort in consolidating this social and religious relationship. The health sector should also endeavour to do the same by improving their situation according to the experiences and perceptions of the 800 people on ARVt who participated in this project.
Recommendations from the Research on People Living with HIV/AIDS
Recommendations 1: Churches need training to deconstruct judgemental attitudes in order to effectively address HIV/AIDS in their communities.
Recommendation 2: Information learned from training programmes needs to be shared with other members from church and the community.
Recommendation 3: Churches should redefine their roles to meet the real needs of their community.
Recommendation 4: Revise preaching methods to encourage discourse with congregations as well as the wider community.
Recommendation 5: Churches must have a uniform programme of spiritual support and care collectively designed to offer effective services across the province and denominations to those living with HIV/AIDS.
Recommendation 6: Encourage all members of the parish to actively engage in programme implementation and management.
Recommendation 7: Use church building to integrate members of the community into active ministry through social programmes and skills development workshops.
Recommendation 8: Provide prayer, pastoral care and counselling for people living with HIV/AIDS.
Recommendation 9: Address the issues of poverty and unemployment Recommendation 10: Share resources and increase networking capacity.
Recommendation 11: Address issues of gender inequalities in the church Recommendation 12: Visibly include people living with HIV/AIDS in the church programmes.
Preliminary Recommendations from the Provincial Poverty Expedition
Recommendation 1: We recommend that churches monitor the utilization of R6.2m provided to the Inanda, KwaMashu and Ntuzuma (INK) areas to cooperatives addressing poverty alleviation through garden projects. Visit the sites, demand to see accounting of finances and profits, assess if the initiative does address the problem and lobby the municipalities on what should actually happen based on the observation of the situation.
Recommendation 2: Talk to AFRA (Association for Rural Advancement) and related organisations to provide water for the Pomeroy community.
Recommendation 3: Address the problems of access to documentation such as identity documents, birth certificates etc to assist communities access government grants
Recommendation 4: Get involved in resolving the problems faced by communities at pension pay points.
Recommendation 5: Help communities struggling with corruptions of political official involving the process and implementation of tendering of project.
 Hypothesis: What are the social and religious effects on the human dignity and self-worth of people on antiretroviral treatment? Meanwhile, this assumption, that there is some social and religious effect, affecting and impacting on the human dignity and self-worth of people on ARVs
Follow-up Research on People on ARV treatment (ARVt) and People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) on the Social and Spiritual Shifts and Experiences of Individuals, Families, Society, Places of Worship and Health Institutions
Introduction: The KwaZulu Natal Christian Council (KZNCC) seeks to do a follow-up sociological and religious research on people on ARV treatment and People Living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). The details, on aims and objectives, confidentiality, publication, and intended utilisation of the information and such related matters, and the request for consent of participants are spelled out in this document of commendation of researchers.
Aims and Objectives
- To interact with people on ARVs and PLWHA, to unearth the social and religious questions they are struggling with, for the purpose of entering their world and together seek ways of sailing through in hope.
- To discover from people on ARVs and PLWHA from the health sector, places of worship and society, for the reason of informing church leaders for the betterment of the situation by lobbying and advocacy.
- To draft a research document for presentation to the provincial ministry of health and affected ARV roll-out health centres for consideration and implementation with the advocacy office monitoring through the Provincial Ecumenical Advocacy Forum (PEAF) and by so doing seek the improvement of the conditions of the particiapants .
Informed Consent: The Researcher will Observe
Protection to Right to Privacy and Confidentiality: The interlocutor is assured by KZNCC, the
right to protection, privacy and confidentially regarding the information divulged.
Duration of Project: The project commences from the 26th October to the 26th November 2009. Follow up processes and programmes shall be negotiated anew.
Procedures to be Subjected to: The participants shall be subjected to one-on-one interview, group interview, group interpretation and reflection, and adoption report at provincial conference.
Benefits: According to the aims and objectives of this exercise, the advocacy office of KZNCC hopes a change of attitude from inhumane treatment to a humane treatment with human dignity, improvement of conditions from counselling programmes, supervision, affordability of treatment and access to facilities shall be effected. It is in the nature of social and religious processes of change, that much as some can be immediate and tangibly observable, in most cases they are gradual and sluggish and yet measurable. The participants shall be recruited for training in candle making, card production, decor skills and organic gardening skills.
Risks: A socio-religious research designed in this manner has a risk of miscalculation and misinterpretation of data. The personal risk of participants is negligible.
Termination from Participation: The participants have the freedom of terminate from participation at any time during the research period and subsequent programmes emerging from these proceedings.
Publication and Use of Results: The research report ‘document’ shall be published at the envisaged conference. Quotations and other forms of acknowledgements shall be handled according to the agreements and approval of the participants observing privacy and confidentiality. The document shall be used as a lobbying and advocacy tool for the enhancement and betterment of the conditions of people on ARVs and PLWHA.
Dr Lucas Mogashudi Ngoetjana Head of Advocacy KZNCC
This report deals with the practical training period which I accomplished as a part of my social welfare worker’s studies. My training organization was KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council (KZNCC), a Christian non-governmental organization in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. My sending organization was North Karelia University of Applied Sciences (NKUAS), an institution of tertiary education in Finland. The practical training period took place from March to June 2011.
The task for the practical training period was to plan, implement and evaluate a communal project in co-operation with the people whom the project concerns. It was recommendable to apply community art methods in the project. However, my training period was rather a versatile familiarization to the organization than a single project. I participated in different activities in the organization and did different tasks, such as taking the minutes in meetings, visiting communities and HIV support groups and organizing an event. In addition, I accomplished a small project which is described in this report. The goal of the project was to develop participatory practices in KwaZulu- Natal Christian Council. In the project I compiled a practical guide which proposes actions for keeping an involving and empowering meeting.
2 HIV and AIDS as A Social Problem in South Africa
Approximately 5,6 million people were living with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in South Africa in 2009. That is more than in any other country in the world. According to a research by UNAIDS, in 2009 South Africa’s HIV prevalence was 17,8 per cent among adults aged 15 to 49. (UNAIDS 2010, 28, 180-181.) Based on a sample of women (aged 15-49) attending antenatal clinics The National Department of Health has estimated that the HIV prevalence among pregnant women is 30,2 per cent. In the
same study it was discovered that the epidemic touches worst the province of KwaZulu- Natal with its 39,5 per cent of HIV prevalence among antenatal clinics attendees. (National Department of Health 2011, 3, 34-35.)
When the first infections in South Africa were found in the beginning of 1980s, HIV/AIDS was named to be a disease of marginalized groups, such as prostitutes and intravenous drug users (Walker, Reid & Cornell 2004, 12-13, 61). Due to the enormous expanding of the virus, it has been necessary to change this perspective. Nowadays the researchers and organizations working against HIV/AIDS see the epidemic as a vast social problem, which inextricably deals with the societal situation in South Africa. Structural problems connected to HIV/AIDS include, for example, poverty, hunger, unemployment, gender inequality and diseases such as tuberculosis. (Walker etc. 2004.)
There still is a social stigma directed at HIV positive people. It is caused by ignorance, fear, cultural and religious understandings and history. In practice stigmatization means, for example, rejection and excluding people from their communities and everyday situations, such as the dining table. The stigma complicates the success of the efforts made to improve the situation of people living with HIV and AIDS. (Walker etc. 2004, 100-103.)
Overcoming HIV/AIDS requires efforts and cooperation of different quarters, such as the government, non-governmental organizations and religious groups. The actions need to be made both on structural and individual level. (f. ex. Kwizera 2011, 18, 46; Walker etc. 2004, 106-131.)
3 KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council 3.1 The Organization
KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council (KZNCC) is a provincial fellowship of churches and church-based organizations. It is an autonomous organization founded in 1996 and is a
member of South African Council of Churches. (KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council: Home.) KZNCC works to identify and respond to provincial challenges, such as HIV/AIDS, gender inequality, traumas, economic injustice and poverty. The organization aims at being an ecumenical networker, coordinator, facilitator and supporter in the provincial level. Being a networker as its essence, KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council has a range of partners. All KZNCC programmes act together with churches, organizations, local communities and other stakeholders. Some of the key partners are the regional Christian councils within the province. These councils are Diakonia Council of Churches, KwaZulu Regional Christian Council, Midlands Christian Council and Southern KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council. (KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council: About us; KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council: Programmes.) In addition, the independent organization Thukela-Amajuba-Mzinyathi Christian Council which also operates within KwaZulu-Natal province is a close partner to KZNCC.
3.2 KwaZulu-Natal Church AIDS Network
The programme of KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council dealing with HIV/AIDS is called KwaZulu-Natal Church AIDS Network (KZNCAN). The programme was born on 2004 to coordinate the HIV/AIDS related activities that churches and faith groups have in the province. The aim of KZNCAN is to strengthen the cooperation and communication between those groups, non-governmental organizations and the government. One of the objectives is to equip churches with skills needed in HIV/AIDS work. (KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council: KwaZulu-Natal Church AIDS Network.)
The KZNCAN programme is also conducting different projects within the province. Male Caregivers project is striving for changing the attitude and behaviour of men regarding gender-based violence and the spread of HIV. Project SOFIA (Sisters of Faith in Action) encourages women to keep gender inequality and marginalization of women under discussion. These projects arrange, for example, training workshops and seminars both on practical skills and theological reflections concerning HIV/AIDS itself and related issues. Under the KZNCAN there are also projects and activities which concentrate on lobbying and advocacy in terms of HIV/AIDS, supporting gay and
lesbian people and assisting HIV/AIDS support groups. (KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council 2010, 20-25; KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council: KwaZulu-Natal Church AIDS Network.)
KZNCC has provided economic empowerment work for HIV/AIDS support groups. Some groups have been trained to make and sell candles or cards, the others have been guided in gardening skills. The objective of these projects has been mitigating unemployment, hunger and poverty. (f. ex. KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council 2010, 2122.) To reach more groups and more people, KZNCC has in 2011 started to create a platform which answers to the needs of the HIV/AIDS support groups. The new platform project operates under the KZNCAN programme. The support groups are typically peer groups for people who are infected or affected by HIV/AIDS. The purpose of the work is to offer the support groups a platform where they can share their skills, knowledge, policies and experiences and thus support one another. The groups also get the opportunity to receive training on different issues, such as advocacy and HIV/AIDS counselling. However, the situations of the support groups vary and that is why it is important to hear each group and their needs.
4 The Idea of People Taking Part
4.1 The Diversity of the Terms
In the English language there are several words which can be used to describe people’s taking part in certain activities or decision-making. According to Liisa Haikio the English terms participation, empowerment and social engagement all approach the same phenomenon from their own starting point. (Haikio 2000, 20.)
Participation describes mainly taking part in something. Typically it refers to something that is arranged by the government or an organization. The people participate in the planned activities in the way and the extent the organizer allows them to. In this case the
initiative to the action comes from above, not from the participating individual or group. (Haikio 2000, 20.)
Empowerment represents the type of action that aims at improving someone’s life management skills and possibilities to take part in the society. Also in this case the initiative comes from outside of the individual or the group. However, the objective of empowerment is to equip the participants so that in the future they will be able to act by their own initiative. (Haikio 2000, 20-21.)
Social engagement is a term which includes the idea of an individual or a group as a self-motivated, active player. Social engagement means the person chooses what are the decisions or activities he/she wants to take part in. He/she also decides how to participate. Social engagement highlights the personal commitment. (Haikio 2000, 21.)
In my opinion, close to social engagement is the term of involvement. Involvement is taking part of something and involving can be done from the outsid. Still, it includes a more active tone compared to participation. Involvement is something an individual chooses, something he/she commits to.
Inclusion as a value and a practice is a perspective of enrichening and strengthening diversity. It is allowing and enabling people to contribute. (Miller & Katz 2002, Preface.) Inclusion gives a sense of belonging and increases the participants’ motivation and commitment (Miller & Katz 2002, 17).
Social pedagogy wants to promote, not only taking part in some action, but also the individual’s experience of being part of something. The experience may concern being part of, for example, a community, the society or a decision-making process. To reach the experiential dimension it is essential to use other terms apart from participation. In this report I have chosen to speak mainly about involvement and involving. I also speak about empowerment but my interpretation for it is different than the one above.
- Empowerment as Liberation
Empowerment is a term which has various definitions. Different branches of sciences regard empowerment from their own perspectives. In social pedagogy empowerment is seen as liberation from oppressive structures and marginalization. Depending on the time, place and culture the inequality has been tied up with, for example, gender, race, sexual orientation or state of health. Empowerment can be observed both on individual and communal or societal level. An empowered person or a community is able to see the oppressive structures and the societal reasons behind them. Due to the awareness it is possible to start operating against the oppression and thus become liberated from it. (Johansson 2011.)
In the social work field the empowerment work has been and is, among other things, influencing in the inequality-generating structures in the society. The work is done together with the people who are oppressed. One of the key ideas is that the people excluded by the society are included to the work against the inequality. Different participatory practices are used to realize this. (Johansson 2011.)
- Participatory Methods and Practices
The structures of the society and its sectors, such as organizations, can cause disempowerment. Sometimes even well-meaning projects and professional workers fail to take citizen’s perspectives into consideration. Especially in the development work it is, however, crucial to find out what people in the target group of the work (or other stakeholders) really think and how the work affects their lives.
In the social work field it is argued whether it is possible to involve people in decision- making and development processes and empower them from the outside or should the initiative to the involvement and empowerment always come from the people themselves. Personally, I think the threshold for sharing one’s ideas, telling one’s opinions and taking part of joint decision-making can be actively lowered. It can be done by a social worker, a project leader, a group facilitator or a chairperson of a
meeting, for example. In this sense I think people can be involved, taken along and empowered, given power to.
The first step is to accept the attitude of involving. When it is decided that it is good to involve people in the process, there are numerous methods and techniques which can be used in putting the involvement in action. These methods are called participatory methods. Obviously, the term “participatory methods” is derived from the word participation which was considered unsuitable above. However, the word pair “participatory methods” is entrenched and does not carry the same negative burden as “participation” does. That is why I have chosen to use the term in this report.
In this project I did not concentrate on participatory methods alone, but widely in practices that can be applied in order to involve people. I use the term participatory practices to describe generally the type of acts that enable people to influence and take part in activities concerning them. According to this definition, participatory methods are a form of participatory practices.
The use of the participatory practices is justified in social pedagogy and drama pedagogy, for example. The methods are based on the idea of equality and shared knowledge. In inclusive situations it is seen that every participant has some important information about the discussed matter. Everyone is an expert when it comes to their own experiences and lives. The facilitator, the professional social worker, the community leader or any other person in a leadership position is not superior to the others and does not have any more “correct” knowledge on the basis of his/her position. The key idea of participatory practices is to involve people in decision-making over issues which concern their lives, in other words to promote empowerment.
5 Participatory Practices Empowering People 5.1 The Background of the Project
Riitta Seppanen-Jarvela has made a research on several social welfare work and health care developing projects in Finland. In her research she states that ideas for developing work are born when someone wants to reform, change or clarify things. The need can be seen to come from either an organization or an individual. Interestingly, the view on what should be developed is clearly linked to the personal interests of the giver of the idea. She also notes that in the developing work it is important to know the current situation in the working field and the actuality of the players in the field. The impulse for the developing work can well be found in understanding the reality. (Seppanen- Jarvela 1999, 125-128.)
The idea for this project arose from my two visits to HIV/AIDS support groups with a small delegation from the KZNCC’s new platform project. During the visits I was mainly observing the working practices which were used to approach the support group members and to collect information from them. I also paid attention to the group dynamics in the meetings. I noticed that open discussion, which was the approach used, managed to raise ideas, suggestions and opinions. However, there were only few people speaking and sharing their views while the others remained quiet. This discovery made me think that there might be a need for working policies which involve more people in discussion on common issues. I also presumed that in multilingual South Africa it might be useful to know practices which are more functional than verbal. I thought the participatory methods could enrich the group working. Due to my drama pedagogy and social pedagogy studies I was already familiar with the principles and benefits of involving people. I also knew several methods from my own experience.
5.2 The Objective, the Product and the Target Group of the Project
The objective of this project was to develop the use of participatory methods in group working within KZNCC employees, project workers and volunteers. The final product of this project is a practical guide which proposes actions for keeping an involving and empowering meeting. In the target group of the project were the people who work with and lead groups: the people who are creating the new platform and therefore meeting HIV/AIDS support groups, the SOFIA and Male Caregivers workshop facilitators, the project leaders et cetera. In this report and in the practical guide I call the target group professionals. It does not refer to the facilitator’s education or to the type of his/her employment relationship but generally to someone who meets clients or groups in his/her work. Right from the beginning the idea was to distribute the practical guide not only to KZNCC but also to the regional partner councils of KZNCC.
6 The Process
6.1 The Shape of the Process
In a linear process the work starts from noticing the development need. After that the objectives are defined, the project is organized and launched. Next, the development work is implemented and finally, the work and the results are estimated, introduced and distributed. (Paasivaara, Suhonen & Virtanen 2011, 82; Rantanen & Toikko 2009, 72.)
In her research Riitta Seppanen-Jarvela has described the method of actor-oriented developing or process developing (my own translation from the Finnish terms “toimijalahtoinen kehittaminen” and “prosessikehittaminen”). It is an approach which has been born as an opposite to the authority-based developing method in which the objectives and the means of developing are dictated from above, from the government level, for example. In the actor-oriented developing the aim of the work is set on the basis of the needs of the organization or other party that is to be developed. The work is started only with a general goal, while the specific objectives and the working practices
are defined later, in the process. In this approach the actors are involved in the developing in every stage of the process. (Seppanen-Jarvela 1999, 105-112.)
I regard my project contained features of both a linear development process and process developing. As mentioned, I was the one who noticed the development need. The need was clearly based on my own appreciation of and interest in the participatory methods. However, I started to look for the development need with an open mind, without ready- made decisions and the need was discovered in the field. (Seppanen-Jarvela 1999, 105112, 125-128). After that the project started to remind a traditional, linear development process. I defined the objectives and made the plan for the project. Then I started to advance the objectives and manage the process so that the objectives could be achieved. (Paasivaara, Suhonen & Virtanen 2011, 82; Rantanen & Toikko 2009, 72.) The changes in the process I took mainly as distractions, whereas in the process development the changes are seen as possibilities and strengths (Seppanen-Jarvela 1999, 116).
6.2 Delimiting the Project for the First Time
Involving people in the action which concerns them is in the heart of social welfare worker’s skills (f. ex. Rouhiainen-Valo, Rantanen, Hovi-Pulsa & Tietavainen 2010, 18, 20-21). Involving is also recommended in modern development work (Rantanen & Toikko 2009, 72-73). My original plan was to contact the KZNCC professionals and ask about the need of the participatory methods in their work. The idea was to take the professionals’ perspectives into account and outline my precise project on the basis of the answers. Part of the original plan was to display some participatory group working methods in practice to the professionals, discuss on the methods and after that to compile a booklet which contains the same methods with their instructions. The objective was to equip the professionals with some new skills which they can use when working with groups.
However, all my planned schedules delayed along the way. I only returned my project plan to my supervisors (Ms Miia Pasanen in my university of applied sciences and Dr Douglas Dziva in my training organization) on the 3rd May 2011. At this point I had
one month left of my practical training period. Due to the difficulty to find a shared time I did not have an opportunity to meet my supervisor Dr Dziva to get a confirmation for my project plan. Despite that I started to advance my project. I knew I probably would not have time to perform the project in the planned extent. The first thing to exclude was contacting the professionals and asking their needs for the project. I believed that the participatory methods would have something to give to the professionals in any case. This assumption was based on my observations.
- Collecting the Participatory Methods
I started to search for websites which contained information on participatory methods. I mainly collected instructions on different methods, but also links to pages that describe the use of participatory methods on practical and theoretical level. I did the search both in Finnish and in English, using different keywords on an Internet’s search engine. I also searched directly for certain methods that I already knew, such as learning cafe. I copied the found instructions to a document in a word processor.
As I was collecting the methods I made a preliminary selection of them. I considered which of the methods could be shown for the employees and chosen for the booklet. I finalized the selection after I had found enough methods from which to choose. The choices based on my own experiences on the methods and their presumed usefulness in KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council activities. The four chosen methods were mind map, learning cafe/world cafe, cumulative group (my own translation from the Finnish term “kumuloituva ryhma”) and chatter group (my own translation from the Finnish term “porinaryhma”). The instructions for the world cafe method I found in English. The three other methods I was going to translate from Finnish to English myself.
- Redefining the Project
On 16th May 2011 I discussed on my project with my supervisor Dr Dziva in KZNCC. I was asked to combine more closely the new platform project for the HIV/AIDS support
groups and my interest in participatory methods. I was requested to concentrate on thinking how the HIV/AIDS support groups could be involved in forming a development agenda for support groups. I only had three weeks left of my practical training period and I realized I needed to delimit and redefine my project again.
I started to think about two questions: “How to involve support groups in forming a development agenda?” and “How to collect ideas from so many groups?” After that I listed some ground values which, in my opinion, concerned the work, and methods which could be used. I understood that if I created a list of information collecting methods, it would be in someone else’s responsibility to collect and analyse the answers. At the same time I felt I had too little time to do anything very comprehensive myself.
I decided to forget displaying the professionals the group working methods, compiling the booklet and making a collection of single information collecting methods. Instead, I wanted to do something practical and easy to understand. Something that any professional I knew in KZNCC or in their partner organizations could apply in their work. I also wanted to do something so modest that I would finish it before the training period was over. I decided to create a material that presents aspects to keep an involving and empowering meeting. At this point the perspective in my project was widened from the participatory methods to the participatory practices.
6.5 Compiling the Practical Guide
I wanted to make a very practical material that could be applied by anyone, whether the person has previous information on involving and participatory practices or not. I started to outline an idea of a meeting between a professional and clients. I divided the meeting in several subtopics, such as the invitations, beginning the meeting and ending the meeting. I wanted the material to be clear and simple and that is why I chose to present the subtopics in a chronological order, following the procedure of a typical meeting.
In the first phase I listed the subtopics and their contents in Finnish for it is my mother tongue and I think faster in Finnish than in other languages. I wrote down everything I thought was related to each subtopic. After that I started to translate the text in English. I tried to use brief, unambiguous instructions and yet maintain the idea of recommending instead of commanding. I knew that due to the lack of time I would not have the opportunity to present the material to the professionals myself and explain it, so clear delivery was important. I felt I needed to be discreet in my expressions because I only had limited knowledge of the South African society and culture, the KZNCC working policies and the employees’ skills. At the same time I strongly believed that my know-how on participatory practices could truly benefit the work of KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council. I also wanted to take a stance on some facts that, in my opinion, were disempowering in the work I had observed. For example, some professionals often arrived seriously late to their appointments and kept others waiting. I wanted to point that this was improper use of power and added several suggestions about honouring the time to the practical guide. I did this even though I knew that I could have a different concept of time than the one in South Africa. Thus far, however, I had noticed that in KZNCC the aspiration was to be punctual.
In the beginning of June 2011 the practical guide was almost ready and about six pages long. At this point my practical training period was ending. On my last day at KZNCC I got some feedback on the practical guide from my supervisor Dr Dziva. He pointed out that the word “empowerment” which I had used in my title was a little complicated because it lets understand that if something can be empowering, it can also be disempowering. He thought “empowerment” might give a wrong message and suggested that I used the term “capacity enhancement” or “capacity strengthening” instead. He also suggested a few additions to the guide, such as paying respect to the people with disabilities in the meeting. We agreed that I would finalize the guide in Finland and send it back by e-mail.
For personal reasons it took a long time until I returned to the material. In September 2012 I continued working with it. The break had made me see the pros and cons of the practical guide. I wanted to capsulize the material and make it fit in five pages. I simplified the text and made it more outspoken. I also noticed that some of my
instructions were unlikely to suit for the environment KZNCC works in. That is why I modified my expressions, again into more recommending direction. I also made most of the additions suggested by Douglas Dziva. I did not, though, change the title of the practical guide. In my view “empowerment” was an appropriate and a positive word which also described the content of the material. Also, empowerment is one of the key phenomena in social pedagogy and by keeping the word in the title I felt I left my own professional touch to the practical guide.
At every stage of making the practical guide I took care of the visual appearance of the material. I tried to make the guide as legible and clear as possible. Several times I adjusted the text on the pages and modified the sentences to fit on the lines. I used the line spacing 1,5 and chose to align the text to the left for its legibility. Finally, I chose the font to be Times New Roman in the whole document. Times New Roman was an obvious choice for its clarity and commonness. It was important that the text could be opened with different word processing programs and be uploaded to the Internet. The body text is a size 12 point. The main title is a size 14 point and bold. The subheadings of the different sections are numbered, a size 13 point and bold. I also used the bolding to highlight some of the words in the body text. The contents under each subtopic are separated from each other with bullets.
6.6 Documenting the Process
Documenting the process is a part of information production (Rantanen & Toikko 2009, 73-74). I documented my working process mainly by keeping a working diary and making personal notes. After returning my project plan I created a calendar to which I marked the tasks I needed to do each day or week. After every week I checked which tasks I had accomplished and which still had to be done. Also my project plan served as a document of the process reminding me of what was my goal before the alterations.
7 The Product
The product of this project was a practical guide titled “Proposed Steps to An Involving and Empowering Meeting” (appendix 1). It is a five-page A4-sized material which proposes how to plan and facilitate a meeting so that it would involve and empower the participants. The guide is aimed at professionals who meet clients, groups and communities in their work. The basic premise in the material is that the professional plans, makes the invitations and facilitates the meeting. However, it notes that the same principles can be applied in one’s personal action at any time.
The guide consists of seven sections: The invitation, The venue, The facilitators and participants, Starting the meeting, Facilitating the meeting, Ending the meeting and After the meeting. Each section presents two to five topics that can be considered from involving and empowering point of view.
In the end of the guide there are two Internet links for pages that give more information on participatory methods. The documents behind the links present participatory methods and give tools to decide when and how to use participatory methods. They also give detailed instructions on 13 different participatory methods and numerous techniques.
8.1 Process Evaluation as a Project Management Tool
Traditionally the evaluation has been seen as a part of the ending point of a project. However, the evaluation is an important part of the whole project and needs to be done in every stage. (Paasivaara etc. 2011, 83.) In my opinion, the evaluation produces information for the project and therefore may serve as a project management tool (see
Rantanen & Toikko 2009, 70-74). That is especially if the process evaluation method is used. According to Riitta Seppanen-Jarvela in the process evaluation the evaluation is done along the way and the work is developed even before it is over on the basis of the findings. Self-evaluation is characteristic to the process evaluation. (Seppanen-Jarvela 2004, 19-26.)
To me the process evaluation was a means to manage the project and bring it to an end. Along the process I estimated several times the remaining work amount and the available time. I redefined and delimited my plan whenever it was necessary in order to finish the project. I found it better to reduce the project and complete it rather than try to hold on to the original idea and leave it unfinished. The process management skills were particularly needed in this project because of the many changes. It was also important to be able to tolerate the incompleteness which is typical for the process development method (Seppanen-Jarvela 1999, 117-118). There were times when I was not sure if I was ever able to finish the project or to produce anything useful for the KZNCC.
Involving is in the core of social welfare worker’s skills (Rouhiainen-Valo etc. 2010, 18, 20-21). The teaching emphasizes that it is important to break the authoritarian patterns and avoid action which is initiated and conducted “from above”. The people whom the work concerns should always be included in planning, implementing and evaluating the work. In my project involving was, unfortunately, carried out poorly.
Involving the professionals in shaping the project would have been crucial. It is examined that an open process which the stakeholders are allowed to take part in is more likely to commit and motivate the people. When the developing project arises from the true needs, it can answer to them relevantly. Also, when the stakeholders are involved in pondering what to develop and how the results of the development work will be put into action, they are more committed to make use of the results and change. (Miller & Katz 2002; Paasivaara etc. 2011, 88; Seppanen-Jarvela 1999, 110, 142.)
Informing and monitoring the achievement of the objectives are the most important project management issues (Paasivaara etc. 2011, 101-102). In my project especially the informing was not sufficient. I think hardly anyone in the organization apart from my supervisor Dr Dziva was aware of my project. I think that was mainly because I was taking part in many activities at KZNCC and this developing project did not stand out from the other tasks I was doing. Also the fact that my project idea and plan were shaped in a rather late stage of my training period probably lead to the scarcity of informing.
At the latest when I had almost finished the practical guide, I should have shown the material to the target group (the professionals) and collected feedback on it. It would have been important to me to hear the professionals’ thoughts about the necessity and the usefulness of the material. The feedback would have given me information on whether the material is understandable and suitable to the South African society and to the work of KZNCC. My fear is that due to the failure of involving and informing about my project to the KZNCC professionals the practical guide will remain untapped.
The impulses for developing work come from the development trends, abroad and understanding the actuality of the actors on the field (Seppanen-Jarvela 1999, 126). Being an international intern gave me the privilege to observe the work of the organization from the outside. I think it is reasoned to say that if I noticed some sparsity in participatory practices, there must be room for improvement in this matter.
The comments of my supervisor Dr Dziva proved that the participatory practices are not as familiar or as used as they could be in KZNCC. When giving me feedback on the material in the beginning of June 2011, Dr Dziva affirmed that the idea of involving and using participatory methods will be very needed and useful in KZNCC’s work. He told me that some of the employees are familiar with the methods but others are not and my practical guide could give some new tools for their work.
Dziva suggested that the guide could be published on the organization’s website where it would be available for anyone. I agreed to the proposal because from the start the idea was to benefit the professionals around the KwaZulu-Natal province. Also, I did not see any harm in possible (illegal) copying that is always a risk when uploading information to the Internet. I decided to publish the material so that anyone who needs it is free to use it. I added a Creative Commons license to my work and by that allowed legal sharing, copying and deriving the material as long as my name as the original copyright holder is mentioned (more information on Creative Commons on page http://creativecommons.org/). This enables the legal distribution of the material without asking me in particular, and further editing and improving the material for different purposes. Via Internet it is possible that the proposed steps will benefit someone even outside KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council.
The main purpose of my project was to develop and enrich the working policies of KwaZulu-Natal Christian Council. In the best case the professionals get interested in the practical guide and independently try to apply the proposed steps in their work. If the professionals experienced the proposed steps in the practical guide have improved their group facilitating skills and made the people to involve more, the material would have succeeded perfectly. Also, it is not excluded that someone who already is familiar with the participatory practices will keep a brief training to his/her colleagues on my practical guide. This would be ideal because in a training situation everyone is given an opportunity to discuss, ask about and question the practices. Thus the practices could become truly internalized and more likely used. Perhaps the practical guide at least stimulates discussion on working practices in KZNCC and generates new projects to develop the professionals’ skills.
When I started my practical training period I saw clearly that I could benefit my training organization with the skills I have. My dream and goal was to get involved in the field work and to apply the participatory methods in practice. While the objective of
equipping the KZNCC professionals with useful working skills remained the same through the project, the final implementation ended up to be quite unambitious compared to the original plan. The project truly demanded the ability to adapt to changes and the ability to relinquish my plans and expectations. It was also frustrating that many other tasks took a lot of time and precluded me from concentrating on this project. Now, afterwards, I believe this could have been avoided with better planning and communication between me and my supervisor Dr Dziva, and also between my sending organization (NKUAS) and training organization (KZNCC).
The weekly plan which I used to plan and follow up my work was a helpful tool for me. It was probably the first schedule type that has ever functioned for me. To be honest, I was surprised that with the weekly schedule I was able to accomplish some of my tasks in time. I believe the planning on the weekly level was conveniently both free and restricted. It also gave me a sense of the task order: what needs to be done first so that something else can happen.
Writing this report in English has been very time consuming for English is a foreign language to me. The word choices have been difficult and I have to settle with the fact that I might have used inappropriate words and expressions. That is always the case when operating in a foreign language. On the other hand I wanted to produce this report in English so that my training organization would benefit from it and also because after accomplishing the practical training period in English it was only natural to choose English for the reporting language.
Working at KZNCC made me see that the development happens in small steps. It is typical that especially the starting stage of a new project is slow and even chaotic when it is still not clear what needs to be done and how (Seppanen-Jarvela 1999, 114-118). This was the case for the HIV/AIDS support groups’ platform project. Development work requires confidence; faith in the fact that changes for the better are possible and needed even when the need or the results of the work are not at sight.
Even though there is no way for me to “make sure” that the participatory practices will be any more used in KZNCC in the future, I believe that my project has all the potential
to set some changes in motion. The project I did was a small step to the participatory practices direction. Now the professionals have the power to choose whether they want to introduce the practices to themselves and each other or not. The next step could be trying the proposed steps to an involving and empowering meeting in action and see what will happen. On the basis of experiences from the trial it is possible to continue developing the working practices into the desired direction.
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Research On The Response Of The Main Line Churches To Homosexuality In South Africa
A number of debates have taken place both within the Church and the media concerning the future direction of the church on homosexuality and same sex marriages in South Africa and the world over. These debates have been triggered in part by differing views on the stance the Church should adopt in relation to issues including the ordination of gay clergy and the recognition of civil partnerships. At international levels questions have been raised about the future of the worldwide Christian Church given the diversity of perspectives on these and other issues in the light of cultural differences based on contexts. This paper is a collection of information on the official position on homosexuality of different denominations, especial mainline churches in South Africa. This paper also records debates and views by the different on what they think about the future direction of the Church. By listening to a wide range of perspectives I hope that this collection of official positions will enable a sharing of ideas leading to a better understanding of how these debates are likely to affect the Church locally and internationally. This paper records the official positions of the following: the Methodist Church of Southern Africa (MCSA), the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Southern Africa (ELCSA), the Moravian Church of South Africa, the United Evangelical Lutheran Church of Southern Africa (UELCSA), the Dutch Reformed Church of South Africa (DRC), The Anglican Church of South Africa, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Baptist Church, the Catholic church, the Seventh-Day Adventist (SDA) and the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (UCCSA) respectively.
The Response Of The Mainline Churches To Homosexuality In South Africa 2009
Summary of official positions on homosexuality of different denominations
- All denominations agree and confess that is sinful to actively discriminate and persecute homosexual people. Therefore churches are absolutely clear that they reject homophobia and support the protection of the rights of gay and lesbian people in civil law and any bill of human rights.
- Churches define Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex. Marriage officers should not be compelled to act against their consciences or the principles of their religious bodies
- The Anglican Church says the Church will not bless same-sex unions, although it would provide loving support and care. However people of homosexual orientation are God’s children. We cannot penalize someone for something not of his or
her own making. Diversity is a creation by the almighty. We need to embrace all of us in our differences and seek to walk together.
- Lutherans and the Moravians on human sexuality say that”… basing her stand on Scripture, deplores same sex marriages and encourages church workers and parishioners not to engage in such relationships; that same sex marriages
are not to be solemnized by our ministers and that such ceremonies are not be allowed to take place in our churches.”
- The Dutch Reformed Church -The position can be classified
as an on-going debate or as “No easy bridge to church’s gay divide, the church decided to further investigate the issue of homosexuality and the possibility that there may be another interpretation of biblical texts regarding the matter
- The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints says that Mormon theology stipulates that “marriage between a man and a woman is ordained of God.” As a result, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints does not endorse same-sex marriage.
- The Baptist Church says that “God’s design for sexual intimacy places it within the context of marriage between one man and one woman” and that “homosexuality is incompatible with Biblical teaching.”
- The Catholic Bishops oppose gay marriage on the ground that “marriage is a faithful, exclusive and lifelong union between one man and one woman.” The conference stated that “what are called ‘homosexual unions’ [cannot be given the status of marriage] because they do not express full human complementarity and because they are inherently no procreative.
- Seventh-day Adventists believe that sexual intimacy belongs only within the marital relationship of a man and a woman. This was the design established by God at creation. The Scriptures declare: “For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and they will become one flesh” (Gen. 2:24, NIV). Throughout Scripture this heterosexual pattern is affirmed. The Bible makes no accommodation for homosexual activity or relationships. Sexual acts outside the circle of a heterosexual marriage are forbidden
- Christian marriage is defined within the Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa as an ordained covenant that exists between one man and one woman under God for life, and holds this definition to be consistent with the authoritative rule of Scripture as well as the tradition of the one, holy,
catholic and apostolic Church.
- The United Congregational Church of Southern Africa is still debating the issue and acknowledges the pain that is a reality for people on all sides of the debate. The church encourages the saints to engage in ongoing biblical and theological reflection in the light of clinical study on the subject. To assist pastors and members to cultivate attitudes and acquire skills that enable them to minister the grace of God to openly homosexual persons; and Revisit with great care its disciplinary codes in the light of the issue of sexuality and sexual orientation. We affirm our tradition that “the Lord has yet more light and truth to break forth from God’s holy word
- The Deo Gracious Church in Durban, The Saints of Christ in Pinetown and the Living Waters Church in Greenfield Gauteng are churches that were initiated after churches were skeptical about homosexuals. They believe that homosexuals are equally created in the image of God like any other human being. Marriage is not only meant for pro-creation but also for joy and company. Couples can be fruitful in many other ways than pro-creation. The fact that hormonal setups are determined at birth than by individuals shows that homosexuals come from God. If homosexuals are not acceptable then the problem is with God not with homosexual beings. What do you say of Casta Semenya’s condition,
what can she do about it? Churches should be blaming and rejecting God and not the homosexuals who are simply God’s creatures. According to homosexuals everybody is welcome in their churches; they do not care about sexuality. Homosexuals and non-homosexuals, males and females are welcome to be ministers in homosexual churches. However they are yet to get a non-homosexual pastor since their official establishment in the late 1990s.
Summary of areas of difference in approach and understanding
- The fact that homosexuality is open to debate is highly contested. For example to Catholics, Lutherans, SDA, Baptist church and Moravians the issue of same sex marriages is not acceptable and that is a closed debate. On the other hand Methodists, UCCSA and the Dutch Reformed Church are open to debate.
- The use of the authority of Scripture to respond to the challenge of Homosexuality is also a contested area.
Churches that say no to same-sex marriages say such marriages are against the bible. On the other hand those that are open to debate argue that Scripture alone cannot help to solve the problem of homosexuality since every scripture is open to different interpretations; there is no one, monolithic and incontrovertible interpretation of Scripture.
- The use of church ministers as marriage officers or to simply bless same sex marriages is another area of difference as noted in appendix 1 debate. Churches that are still open to debate are also open to blessing same relationships while those that have closed the debate have also closed this aspect of blessing such relationships.
- Churches that are still open to debate do accept applications to ministry by self confessed homosexuals while those that have closed the debate on homosexuality do not accept such applicants. The issue of homosexual oriented applicants and practicing homosexuals is viewed with the same spectacles as the blessing of unions by ministers.
- The use of the term marriage to refer to both same sex unions and heterosexual unions. Some denominations see no problem in using the word marriage for both. However some denominations as noted in the above debate say that the term marriage should only be used for heterosexual unions and the term same sex relationship for homosexual unions.
- I should be honestly noted especial by those churches that have closed the debate that any position taken by the church on the issue of homosexuality has the potential to split the church between conservatives and liberals. Closing the debate from a position of authority does not solve the problem, instead it fuels it. I spoke to several Christians amongst Lutherans and Catholics and the majority say that people are practising homosexuality in private because the church does not want to accept reality.
- Theology from above that is theology by the clergy tends to use scripture to discredit homosexuality among the churches that have closed the debate. However Scripture alone cannot help to solve the problem of homosexuality since every scripture is open to different interpretations; there is no one, monolithic and incontrovertible interpretation of scripture. Surely the voiceless homosexuals in these churches have their own interpretations.
- If homosexuality is a sin then it should be allowed to exist like all other sins that are existing. The church is nursing different types of sinners and it does not reject such sinners, what is so special about homosexuality such that it needs to be judged now, now?
- Churches that are still open to debate have taken a better stand than those that have closed the debate. From a democratic point of view members should be allowed to debate issues as long as they still feel the necessity of the debate.
- KZNCC should create forums where the issue of homosexuality can be debated by both the clergy and laity. There is need to define the phenomenon, its attributes,
causes and the feelings of participants. Such an open debate can enable churches and church leaders to make informed decisions about homosexuality in the church.
The Methodist Church Of Southern Africa
According to Rev Professor Neville Richardson, the Methodist Church in Southern Africa, “The Methodist Church is a community of love not rejection.” This effectively means that the Methodist Church embraces homosexuals despite the fact that the debate on ordination and marriage is still going on. The current official position is as recorded in the 2008 yearbook:
2.5 Policy And Doctrine 2.5.1 Same Sex Debate
The conference of 2007, in considering the ongoing same-sex discussion, declares its determination not to permit different viewpoints among us to further divide our church. In the face of our differences we recall and reaffirm the 1958 conference resolution declaring that “it is the will of God for the Methodist Church that it should be one and undivided.”
In light of that declaration, and informed by the 2001 conference commitment to being “a community of love rather than rejection,” and the 2005 conference inviting Methodists embracing ‘many different and even opposing views on the issue” to “journey together,” this conference seeks a way forward that both respects and holds in tension differing views among our ministers and people.
Conference therefore resolves:
- That the grace, affirmation of diversity, and the commitment
to the unity of the church central to the same-sex resolutions of the 2001 and 2005 conferences be reaffirmed;
- That our ministers and people continue to engage this issue in Christian conversation and respectful listening, so that all of us may more fully understand and articulate the variety of viewpoints held within the church;
- That we will seek to be a Christ-honouring community:
- Celebrating the rich diversity of those called to follow Jesus, honouring the sacred worth of all people and practicing our Wesleyan heritage of warmth, welcome and hospitality;
- Recognizing the authority of scripture, and noting that in our quest for understanding, there is no one, monolithic and incontrovertible interpretation of it;
- Acknowledging that there are therefore some issues upon which there may never be total unanimity within the church and upon which we must “agree to differ” without reducing our respect for, and trust of, one another.
- approves the publican of Bible study material which will assist members of the church to reflect on the issue of Christians and homosexuality and same-sex relationships
- directs that a meeting be convened to consider the wide spectrum of viewpoints on the civil unions of same-sex couples, in order to listen to each other, identify points of agreement and differences and seek a way forward that will enhance the unity of the church. DEWCOM is mandated to convene this engagement
- conference recognizes that any decision and subsequent action on the issue of civil unions between same-sex partners must await the on-going process of engagement as specified by conference 2005 (Yearbook 2006, 8.3, p. 75) and, in the interim, expects Methodists ministers to continue to offer pastoral care to homosexual individuals.
The Evangelical Lutheran Church Of Southern Africa (Elcsa) And The Moravian Church Of South Africa
The ELCSA statement reads as follows: “On human sexuality: that ELCSA, basing her stand on Scripture, deplores same sex marriages and encourages church workers and parishioners not to engage in such relationships; that same sex marriages are not to be solemnized by our ministers and that such ceremonies not be allowed to take place in ourchurches.”The Moravian Church indicated that its position is the same.
ELCSA, according to Bishop Dr Biyela embraces homosexuals and allows them to worship in their churches as full members. Biyela acknowledges that the church is a place for sick people who need healing, “so all people who are in church are sick of one condition or another and the church is a healing community hence the concept of embracing all sorts of people” What is interesting is that all the different versions of Lutheran churches in Southern Africa despite their cultural differences seem to agree on homosexuality. The position of the Lutherans is that:
“The issue of Homosexuality and Same-sex Marriages has
become a matter of major concern. What is the position of our Church in this matter is asked by many members. This controversial topic is discussed throughout the world. It is a very complex and sensitive issue. Although people and churches have tried to formulate their own position in responsibility and obedience to God, these positions are very contradictory. Every position has the potential to cause a split and to separate people, congregations and churches. There are no
easy answers. Whatever position a church takes will most definitely have the consequence that some members will strongly disagree, irrespective of whether it takes a pro, contra or no position. One also cannot just cite biblical texts, because then we could seek and find texts to suit and justify our own position. That is not how we read the Bible as Lutherans. We must seriously contemplate the whole life of Jesus and how he deals with people, also marginalized people. Today science also knows much more about homosexuality than 2,000 years ago – this knowledge needs to be taken cognizance of. We need to continue to talk about this matter. What is more, we need to talk to homosexuals directly and not only about them. When you know a person or when you have a homosexual as family member, acquaintance or as friend one is bound to talk differently about this whole matter. We should not even talk about them and us – in Christ we belong together. We may not deal with this matter in a simplistic or superficial way; we are dealing with our brothers and sisters.
In view of this difficulty and uncertainty, Church Council felt it was necessary to inform our congregations about the present position. The present position of the ELCSA (N-T) is unchanged and is the position formulated in the paper prepared by our Study Commission which tabled a paper to Synod in 1997, which was accepted by Synod. We as Church, together with the ELCSA and ELCSA (Cape) do not understand same sex partnerships as marriage. A marriage is understood as a union only between a man and a woman. Furthermore the valid and unchanged position of our Church is that the blessing of same sex unions is rejected. Consequently the Church can also not give consent to pastors/marriage officers to register for the State examination to be able to perform such “marriages”.
Both the ELCSA (Cape) and the DRC have discussed this issue at their recent Synods. Also the LWF has written a paper on this matter. In all three cases the matter has not been finalized. Also we will have to continue to discuss the many unanswered questions.”7
7Church Council report presented at the 2nd Session of the 5th Church Synod 2007 of ELCSA (N-T) at Kempton Park, 11 -14 Oct. 2007: http://www.elcsant.org.za/synod/reports_07.asp accessed on 18/10/09
The united evangelical lutheran church of southern africa (uelcsa)
Bishop D.R. Lilje, Bischof of UELCSA together with Bishop Bishop N. Rohwer from ELCSA (Cape) in UELCSA -Secular 1/2007 (bulletin 6.3 Same-sex marriages and homosexuality) issued the following statement on homosexuality;
Throughout the world this controversial topic is being discussed. Church Council wants to inform all congregations about the unchanged and present position of our Church in this matter, which was confirmed by the paper of our Study Commission, accepted by our Church Synod 1997. Some time ago the congregations were informed via the Bishop’s Circular that we as Church, together with the ELCSA and ELCSA (Cape), do not understand same-sex partnerships as a marriage and that marriage is only understood as a union between a man and a woman. Furthermore the valid and unchanged position of our Church is that the blessing of same-sex unions is rejected. Consequently the Church can also not give consent to pastors/marriage officers to register for the State examination to be able to perform such marriages. The individual pastor has to abide by this rule.
Within our Church we will, however, continue to discuss this matter. It is a very complex issue. Although people and churches try to formulate their own standpoint in responsibility and in obedience to God, these positions are very contradictory. Every position has the potential to cause a split and to separate people, congregations and churches. There are no easy answers. What are the criteria according to which we can take our decisions? One cannot just cite Biblical texts, because then we could seek and find texts to suit and justify our own opinion. That is not how we as Lutherans read the Bible. We must seriously contemplate the whole life of Jesus and his way of dealing with people. Today we also know very much more about homosexuality than 2,000 years ago – that needs to be taken into
consideration. Can one just take the easy way and dismiss it by saying it is a sin? We need to continue to talk about this respectfully and with love. Yes, we need to talk to such people themselves and not only about them. We may not deal with this matter in a superficial way as we are dealing with people, our brothers and sisters.
The position of UELCSA is similar almost word for with the ELCSA position.
The Dutch Reformed Church Of South Africa (Drc)
The Dutch Reformed church does not have a clear position; the church is at the verge of being divided according to those who are for homosexuality and those against. The position can be classified as an on-going debate or as “No easy bridge to church’s gay divide.”The debate is wild and wide, I have recorded some of the church discussions verbatim so as to portray clearly the intensity of the debates.
The church’s general secretary, Kobus Gerber, expressed regret at the pain being caused by the debate on homosexuality. He says that the DRC has an open door policy and people are allowed to speak out and sees that as positive. “But it is positive in the sense that many people are daring for the first time to make their voices heard.”
In October 2007, the church replaced its 1986 position on homosexuality with one allowing for differing interpretations of the Bible. It undertook to pursue discussion and study on the topic, but said gay people could not be excluded from the church. In 1986, the church described homosexuality as deviant behaviour, and in conflict with the will of God. The church has never had an official position on practising gays gaining membership or holding office.
Gerber said a task team set up to formulate policy on the matter will finish its work as soon as possible. A final policy is likely to be tabled before a general synod. Issues arising in the meantime will be dealt with on a case-by-case basis.
“This is being handled as a matter of urgency,” Gerber said. “We know people are hasty, unhappy and hurting, but we have a responsibility to consider this issue calmly and with integrity. We will not allow any over-hasty shooting from the hip.” Gerber was not overly concerned about a split, saying: “A church doesn’t tear quite that easily.” The church is divided on many other issues, such as the lottery and capital punishment, “but we always accept one another’s theological integrity”.
According to Dr Coenie Burger, moderator of the General Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa Their discussions on homosexuality come at a time when the Anglican and Methodist churches are also seeking to identify a clear stance on the matter. In this case people have to understand that this is an ongoing discussion. Discussions which are…on the table for the church are its position on homosexuality and the unification process with other reformed churches in South Africa.
In support of Dr Coenje’s position, Dr Kobus Gerber, general secretary of the general synod, says he believes people may have been struggling with the church’s approach to “doctrinal aspects” on homosexuality – which led to unhappiness in the church. This is what is leading to perceived divisions in the DRC then “the church decided to further investigate the issue of homosexuality and the possibility that there may be another interpretation of biblical texts regarding the matter. This, he says, was misconstrued as the Dutch Reformed Church condoning homosexuality.”
The Anglican Church of South Africa
The global Anglican/Episcopal communion has been a touchstone for these debates since the 1998 Lambeth Conference (of worldwide bishops) and the 2003 ordination of a gay bishop in the Episcopal Church of the United States (ECUSA). The Communion has been described as “at war” or “in crisis” as a result of divided opinion over homosexuality. What is clear is that the unfolding of this crisis has been, and continues to be, heavily influenced by flows of people, ideas, and capital within a trans-national network that is not easily capturable with traditional notions of bounded space.
The Anglican Church has a challenge especial with its international partners that have ordained gay ministers and embraced same sex marriages. In South Africa the Anglican Church embraces homosexuals as created by God but does not bless same sex marriages. South Africa’s Archbishop of Cape Town, Njongonkulu Ndungane, – who heads 24 Anglican bishops in the country – supports the Civil Unions Bill which legalises same-sex partnerships. He says that there should be two separate types of marriage; the existing law which covers heterosexual couples and a new concept which would allow for same- sex unions. Ndungane said that “I have said to my friends who are gay and lesbian that using the word marriage is like a red flag to a bull. They will be wise to use the word partnership or union.”The matter was the subject of a recent meeting of the Synod of Bishops of the Church of the Province of Southern Africa which has decided not to challenge the Civil Unions Bill. Nevertheless Ndungane said that the Church will not bless same-sex unions, although it would provide “loving support and care”. “People of homosexual orientation are God’s children. We cannot penalize someone for something not of his or her own making”, said Ndungane, adding that, “Diversity
is a creation by the almighty. We need to embrace all of us in our differences and seek to walk together.”
The Archbishop’s position is a moderate one among South African religious groups, many of whom do not support any kind of same-sex unions or marriage. Protest marches against same-sex marriage are planned for this weekend around the country. Most gay organizations have rejected the bill as unconstitutional and separatist, calling instead for same-sex marriage to be incorporated within the existing Marriage Act. Tensions within the Anglican Church over the issue of homosexuality have recently reached breaking point, with ultra- conservative branches, such as The Church of Nigeria, threatening to split from the body because other branches have ordained openly-gay clergy. Members of the Joint Working Group (JWG) – a coalition of South African LGBTI activist and support groups are preparing written submissions, a letter writing campaign and even pickets outside parliament to convince government to abandon the Civil Unions Bill and instead adapt the Marriage Act.
Church Of Jesus Christ Of Latter-Day Saints
Mormon theology stipulates that “marriage between a man and a woman is ordained of God.” As a result, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints does not endorse same-sex marriage.
The Baptist Church
In 2005, the governing body of the Baptist Church affirmed that “God’s design for sexual intimacy places it within the context of marriage between one man and one woman” and that “homosexuality is incompatible with Biblical teaching.”
According to Professor Edwina Ward of the School of Religion and Theology at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, “The Roman Catholic church accepts that people can be born as homosexuals. They are to be accepted, loved and understood. Not condemned. BUT they cannot practice homosexuality in any way with minors, male or female. They are condoned if they are in a long tern relationship with ONE partner who is a consenting adult. Priests cannot practice homosexuality at all.”15
The Catholic Bishops oppose gay marriage on the ground that “marriage is a faithful, exclusive and lifelong union between one man and one woman.” The conference stated that “what are called ‘homosexual unions’ [cannot be given the status of marriage] because they do not express full human complementarity and because they are inherently no procreative.”20
The Southern African Catholic Bishops Conference reiterates the Church’s teaching as laid out in the Catechism of the Catholic Church through, Wilfred Cardinal Napier, OFM, President of the Southern African Catholic Bishops’ Conference
“Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex.”
It has taken a great variety of forms through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis remains largely unexplained.
19Interview through email on 20 October 2009. 20http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=426
- Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that “homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered.” They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved’.
To summarize, all homosexual acts are declared to be intrinsically disordered. Therefore they cannot under any circumstance be approved. The reasons why they are said to be intrinsically disordered are:
They are contrary to the natural law,
They close the sexual act to the gift of life and
They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual
Scripture passages that the Church uses for its teaching include this passage from St Paul’s Letter to the Romans:
For this reason, God gave them up to degrading passions. Their women exchanged natural intercourse for unnatural, and in the same way also the men, giving up natural intercourse with women, were consumed with passion for one another. Men committed shameless acts with men and received in their own persons the due penalty for their error. (Rom 1: 26)
Among the questions being asked about the Church’s reaction to the Constitutional Court’s ruling are the following:
- Can the Church impose its values on society?
The answer depends on a number of considerations:
- . If human beings do not have a Creator, in other words, if human beings have total knowledge, wisdom and power to create themselves, then the answer is No. The Church cannot impose its values on anyone, because the Church takes its authority from the infinite God.
- . If the Church and Society believe and accept as a given that there is an all holy, all knowing and all powerful God who created everything including human beings, and created them to exist and live according to his Will and Laws, then the Church not only can but also must proclaim and work for the acceptance and submission to the values that God has revealed to us.
b.. The Constitution is the supreme law of the land, so how can the Catholic Church take issue with it?
It is true that the Constitution is the supreme law of the land, but in order to be binding on the consciences of its citizens it must conform to the Law of God. And in this case it clearly does not. Indeed if the S.A. Constitution is being made to supersede the revealed will of God then South Africa is morally doomed. For no one can go against God’s Will and come away unscathed. The fact that same sex marriages are approved by the Constitutional Court, that does not make them morally right. The Church has the prophetic duty to point out where the Constitution runs counter to the Commandments of God, our Maker’s Instructions which determine how human beings are to live good and moral lives.
- c) What is the Church going to do about this situation?
- . Taking our lead from the Scriptures our first action is Prayer, prayer for a change of heart on the part of all who are responsible for flaunting God’s Law;
- . Second we will continue teaching and preaching the truth revealed by God’s Word about human sexuality and its proper use in marriage.
c.. Thirdly we will mobilize the Faithful and all people of goodwill to work together to save our nation and country from the disasters that
befall any people that turns its back on its God.
The legalizing of same sex marriages is doomed to have a morally deleterious effect on the institution of the family, traditionally defined as the permanent union between husband and wife.
Seventh-Day Adventist Position Statement On Homosexuality*
The Seventh-day Adventist Church recognizes that every human being is valuable in the sight of God, and we seek to minister to all men and women in the spirit of Jesus. We also believe that by God’s grace and through the encouragement of the community of faith, an individual may live in harmony with the principles of God’s Word.
Seventh-day Adventists believe that sexual intimacy belongs only within the marital relationship of a man and a woman. This was the design established by God at creation. The Scriptures declare: “For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and they will become one flesh” (Gen. 2:24, NIV). Throughout Scripture this heterosexual pattern is affirmed. The Bible makes no accommodation for homosexual activity or relationships. Sexual acts outside the circle of a heterosexual marriage are forbidden (Lev. 20:7- 21; Rom. 1:24-27; 1 Cor. 6:9-11). Jesus Christ reaffirmed the divine creation intent: “‘Haven’t you read,’ he replied, ‘that at the beginning the Creator “made them male and female,” and said, “For this reason a man will leave his father and mother and be united to his wife, and the two will become one flesh?” So they are no longer two, but one'” (Matt. 19:4-6, NIV). For these reasons Adventists are opposed to homosexual practices and relationships.
Seventh-day Adventists endeavor to follow the instruction and example of Jesus. He affirmed the dignity of all human beings and reached out compassionately to persons and families suffering the consequences of sin. He offered caring ministry and words of solace to struggling people, while differentiating His love for sinners from His clear teaching about sinful practices.
21The Seventh-day Adventists have an international position on homosexuality, http://www.gladventist.org/faq/ adventist-position.htm
The Uniting Presbyterian Church In Southern Africa
The UPCSA still stands by its submissions to the Portfolio Committee on Home Affairs, Parliament of the Republic of South Africa, Submission on the Civil Union Bill (B26-2006) on issues of homosexuality and same sex marriages. The church was represented by Rev DT Gevers (Convener: Doctrine, Ethics & Discipline Committee), The Rt. Reverend W D Pool: (Moderator of the General Assembly), The Reverend MS Vellem: (General Secretary). The position is argued as follows: The Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa (Uniting Presbyterian Church) is a union of two Presbyterian denominations, namely the Reformed Presbyterian Church of South Africa and the Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa, both of which have existed in South Africa for well over a century. The historic union of the two churches took place in Port Elizabeth in 1999.
By way of background to this submission, it should be noted that in 2005 the church adopted a statement on the definition of marriage, which was confirmed in 2006. The statement reads as follows: The Executive Commission affirms that Christian marriage is defined within the Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa as an ordained covenant that exists between one man and one woman under God for life, and holds this definition to be consistent with the authoritative rule of Scripture as well as the tradition of the one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church.
The Executive Commission instructs all marriage officers affiliated with the UPCSA to remain faithful to the church’s definition of marriage, and to exercise pastoral compassion and sensitivity in their dealings with all who approach the church for assistance with marriage.
The Executive Commission exhorts all members of the church to uphold the sanctity of Christian marriage, and to acknowledge its role
as the proper context for the expression of sexual intimacy between a man and a woman.
The rationale behind this statement is as follows.
In view of the current initiative in our nation to re-define marriage through the law courts to include same-sex couples, it is imperative that our church give a clear and unequivocal signal as to the Christian definition of marriage, both for the guidance of its own members, and also that it may contribute effectively to the debate within wider society.
It should be noted that this matter, although clearly related, is also distinct from the debate surrounding sexuality and homosexuality. It concerns specifically the Christian understanding of marriage in the light of Scripture as our “final rule of faith and life”, as well as of our inherited tradition arising out of the church’s hermeneutic through the ages.
Both of these bear a unified resounding witness:
- Marriage arises out of the order of creation, and is defined in the creation accounts of Genesis as that which exists between a man and a woman.
- The prophetic tradition strongly reinforces this concept of marriage, and extends it to a metaphorical depiction of God and Israel (cf. Hosea, Malachi, Isaiah, Jeremiah).
- Jesus confirms God’s creation of man and woman as the foundation of marriage and upholds marriage as that institution by which a “man shall leave his father and his mother and be made one with his wife, and the two shall become one flesh” (Matthew 19:4 ff.; Mark 10:1 ff.). This is central to the Christian view of marriage, encompassing both the physical and the spiritual realities of the marriage act as that which incorporates one man and one woman.
- Both Paul (Ephesians) and John (Revelation) allude to the church as the bride of Christ, reflecting the metaphorical line of the prophets.
- The New Testament consistently exhorts that marriage as a relationship of sexual faithfulness between a man and
a woman be held in honour and that it be undefiled (cf. Hebrews 13:4; 1 Corinthians 7: 1-5)
- Whilst not exclusively so, marriage is linked to the procreation and nurture of children in several Biblical passages (Cf. Genesis 1:28, 4:1; Ephesians 6:1; Colossians 3:20-21).
- This definition has held sway in the church through the ages, as is evidenced in the writings of the Church Fathers (Ignatius of Antioch, Clement of Alexandria, Chrysostom, Ambrose, Jerome et.al.) and in marriage service orders of different denominations and eras (cf. the Sarum Liturgy, the Latin Rite, the 1549 Prayer Book right through to our own – remarkably consistent).
The conclusion inescapably to be drawn from this witness is that, according to the Christian understanding, marriage is:
- Ordained by God;
- Covenantal in nature;
- An exclusive relationship involving one man and one woman. The Church has been remarkably consistent in this definition, across the denominations and across the ages, in spite of other serious differences and disputes. This should inform us. It is fallacious to say that our current time is unique and different to all the contexts that have gone before us. Homosexuality has been a reality in all of them, condoned in some of them, but this has never led the Church to review its definition of marriage.
The intention of this statement is to uphold the Christian definition of marriage, not to provide a basis within the church for the exclusion and/or persecution of those who may pursue certain sexual practices, gay or otherwise. These practices must be addressed through the One who is “full of grace and truth”.
It should be noted that our government has given the assurance that, notwithstanding any change to the definition of marriage on
the part of the state, marriage officers will not be compelled to act against their consciences or the principles of their religious bodies. Alarmist reactions to this issue should thus be avoided. Nevertheless our church’s stance must be firm, clear and unequivocal, both for the guidance of its officials and members, and also that it may stand alongside fellow churches in faithfully representing to our lawmakers the Christian view, and that which we believe God requires of us as a nation.
From this foundation we are thankful for the opportunity to make the following submissions to the legislative process on the Civil Union Bill, in particular to that section of it that deals with Civil Partnerships.
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church is in full agreement that the rights and civil liberties of all South Africans should be respected and safeguarded by law.
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church supports the provisions in the Bill that protect the legal interests and dignity of persons involved in same sex relationships.
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church is of the strong conviction that same sex partnerships, however else defined in law, cannot be defined as marriage in any form, as the institution of marriage in the Christian understanding has ever only meant a relationship between one man and one woman, and furthermore marriage has in every culture and religion only ever pertained to a relationship between the male and female sexes.
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church supports the enactment of specific legislation, other than the existing Marriage Act, that defines and regulates same sex partnerships. To this extent the Church supports the provisions in the Bill for Civil Partnerships and is of the view that the existing Marriage Act should be left unaltered.
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church does not support the recommendation of the S A Law Commission for a new marriage act to be called the Reformed Marriage Act and the reworking of the existing act into a Traditional Marriage Act.
This would have the effect of attributing to heterosexual marriage a minority connotation.
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church does not support section 11 of the Bill in that it allows the option of the partnership being referred to as a marriage in the solemnisation thereof.
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church, being of the view that the term ‘marriage officer’ should be restricted to those officers appointed in terms of the existing marriage act only, does not support the use of the term in relation to the solemnisation and registration of civil partnerships, primarily in section 5 but also
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church is compelled to draw the attention of Parliament to the words of Jesus as recorded in Matthew 19: 4-5 2, to the truth that marriage as an estate given by God is not ours to redefine, and to the reality that we, as a nation, are accountable to God for the conduct of our affairs.
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church exhorts Parliament to take cognisance of the broad consensus amongst all major religious groupings within the country on the subject of the definition of marriage, and of the fact that this constitutes the value base of the overwhelming majority of South Africans. That marriage is held to be sacred within all of these religions must be of importance to any consideration of dignity, freedom, fairness and discrimination in the application of the Bill of Rights to the legislative process. This is foundational to the extent that an amendment to the constitution, protecting the institution of marriage as a union that exists exclusively between male and female, would be warranted.
Thank you for receiving this submission. Please be assured of our prayers and best wishes at all times for the work of parliament and its committees.
The Uccsa And The Issue Of Homosexuality And Homophobia
According to Steve de Gruchy minutes of the general assemblies of the church can best portray the position of the UCCSA on homosexuality. I have included the minutes as they were given to me by Prof Steve de Gruchy.
The AIDS pandemic and the emergence of public debate around pornography and censorship, abortion and homosexual rights in the new South African constitution forced the UCCSA to begin to think theologically about sexuality in the early 1990’s.
At the 1993 UCCSA Assembly meeting in Graaf Reinett, the Theological Commission was tasked with preparing a statement on Sexuality. It worked on this over the next two years and presented its document, Our Faith, Our Sexuality to the 1995 UCCSA Assembly meeting in Bisho, Eastern Cape Province.
This document was adopted unanimously at the Assembly. Section 5 of this document deals specifically with ‘homosexuality and homophobia’.
1995: Our Faith, Our Sexuality
Section 5: Homosexuality And Homophobia
In the realm of sexuality, perhaps no question has been so hotly debated as that to do with homosexuality. Those who are opposed to homosexual behaviour consider this to be a sin. On the other hand, those who are supportive see homosexual orientation as a ‘good gift’, the way God has created some people.
Between these two there is much conflict centred around biblical interpretation and the lives and faith of gay and lesbian Christians. Because of this we are unable to reach consensus on these matters at this time. We commend to you the need for further study, and also the
need to talk with (and not just about) gay and lesbian Christians. At the same time, we are absolutely clear that we reject homophobia – the active discrimination against and persecution of homosexual people. We therefore support the protection of the rights of gay and lesbian people in civil law and any bill of human rights.
BETWEEN 1995 AND 1997.
Then … the issue of UCCSA minister, Rev. Vernon Openshaw presiding at a ‘gay marriage’ became public when it appeared in the press. He was disciplined by the Ministerial Committee of the Central Regional Council, and this created the need to explore his issue further.
Also, UCCSA minister and member of the Theological Commission, Steve de Gruchy was involved in co-editing the book, Aliens in the Household of God. The partner church of the UCCSA in the USA, the United Church of Christ has an ‘open and affirming’ position and welcomes gay and lesbian members and ministers. They provided funding for a copy of the book to be sent to every UCCSA minister as part of the study process mentioned in the statement, ‘Our Faith, Our Sexuality’.
The theological commission was asked to prepare further study materials, and did this in a series of questions which were presented to the UCCSA Assembly in Gaborone. These were adopted and sent down for further discussion at local and regional level. 1997 Assembly In Gaborone: Resolution On Homosexuality
- In an attempt to clarify the UCCSA policy on the matter of Homosexuality, Assembly resolved to remit the following questions to Synods, Regional councils and local churches for discussion and response to the September 1998 meeting of the Executive Committee:
- Can We In The Uccsa Affirm:
- that all people regardless of their sexual orientation, are created by God in his image?
- that all people, regardless of their sexual orientation, are redeemed by Jesus Christ and called into covenant fellowship
in the Church?
- that al people regardless of the sexual orientation are called to the responsible use of God’s gift of sexuality – within the framework of committed and stable covenant relationships?
- that the gift of discernment and insight is given to people through the guidance of the Word of God and the Holy Spirit, so that freedom of conscience and the authority of the local church meeting have dignity within the pastoral care of and prophetic witness to the wider community?
- Can We In The Uccsa Therefore Resolve:
- that it its witness for justice and human rights, the Church must be seen to take a clear stand to oppose prejudice towards and discrimination against gay and lesbian people in society?
- that local churches are encouraged to be “welcoming congregations ” in respect of all people, regardless of their sexual orientation and afford them full rights and responsibilities of membership?
- that the UCCSA shall consider applications for the ordained ministry from openly gay and lesbian people in the same way that all other applications are considered?
- Assembly resolves that until such time as a policy is adopted, Ministers of the UCCSA are not permitted to participate in blessing of same sex unions.
(The Rev. Dr. S.M. de Gruchy asked that his objection to this resolution be minuted)
1999 Assembly, Tiger Kloof, North West Province.
Between 1997 and 1999. The Theological Commission received very few comments on these questions, and the Executive Committee therefore brought the same questions to the 1999 Assembly meeting in Tiger Kloof, North West Province
There was lengthy debate on these questions, than ran for almost
an entire day. Issues raised were then passed on to the Resolutions Committee who brought the following resolution before the Assembly which was adopted by 111 votes against 43 with 11 abstentions.
99IAI34 Resolution On Homosexuality
The question of homosexuality is a growing concern without our own families, our fellowships and our communities. It is one that we cannot wish away. Our duty is to seek the mind of Christ through continuing openness to the Holy Spirit, dialogue amongst ourselves and with the homosexual community.
What is non-negotiable for us is the conviction that all humanity is made in the image of God, however scarred in many ways that image may be. Despite our fallenness, God does not cease to love us unconditionally. The reality is that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners.
The Thirtieth Assembly of the United Congregational Church, after much prayer and discussion in our local churches, synods and regions, accepts that the denomination is not of a common mind and is unable to formulate a unanimous position with regard to the question of homosexuality at this time. In our debates, we have realised that the question is enormously complicated and diverse, from biblical, cultural and personal perspectives.
Some would have the church condemn homosexual practice as outright sin, and are of the opinion, in varying degrees, that openly homosexual people should not be allowed membership and/or office in the local church. They would also deny ordination to openly homosexual persons.
Others are of the opinion that, while the practice of homosexuality is against scriptural norms, the church has a duty, as the bearer of God’s grace to provide compassionate ministry to people who do not adhere to the perceived biblical standards.
A seeming minority would have local church be openly welcoming and affirming or homosexual person, and would encourage the church to ordain people who feel called by God irrespective of their sexual orientation.
Our belief is that the question should not be dealt with in a purely legalistic manner, but with the pastoral compassion which Christ displayed to all sinners. Assembly therefore feels unable to adopt the notice of motion sent down to synods, regions and local churches by the 1997 Assembly.
We Therefore Call Upon The Church:
To acknowledge the pain that is a reality for people on all sides of the debate;
To engage in ongoing biblical and theological reflection in the light of clinical study on the subject
To assist pastors and members to cultivate attitudes and acquire skills that enable them to minister the grace of God to openly homosexual persons; and
Revisit with great care its disciplinary codes in the light of the issue of sexuality and sexual orientation.
We affirm our tradition that “the Lord has yet more light and truth to break forth from God’s holy word”.
There is no conclusive position in the majority of denominations. The position is that of on going debates. There, however seem to be unanimity on the question of embracing those with an orientation to homosexuality as children of God. The challenge comes on the question of same-sex marriages, thus where the debate centers.
This on going debate is affected in many ways by public attitudes and legislative frameworks regarding homosexuality, the different denominations have addressed the changing social conditions
differently. Some denominations made strong presentations to government on their displeasure on the legalization of same sex marriages. Through novel methodological and dissemination strategies, there is need for a project that will engage the public and policy-makers when issues of religious freedom and sexual equality are coming into conflict. Furthermore there is need for a forum that will interrogate how local denominational debates and circumstances regarding homosexuality are shaped and constituted by global flows and exchanges of information in the light of growing globalization. South Africa is a democratic state, how far does this democracy influence and affect religious communities?
Debates have raged within Christian churches over the morality of homosexuality, the recognition of same-sex unions, and the ordination of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. Many Christians who oppose the acceptance of homosexuality see it as undermining traditional values and exposing the bankruptcy of secular humanism. Homosexuality has become for many the key issue distinguishing between orthodoxy and a liberalism that erodes classical doctrine and ethics. In contrast, Christian supporters of gay rights understand their position as consistent with a Christian ethic emphasizing liberation and concern for the marginalized. A range of Christian pressure groups have sought to influence public debates on LGBT rights/protections.
List Of References
Abrahams Ivan Manuel (Presiding Bishop), Nyobole Gladstone Vuyani (Executive Secretary) and Mkwanazi Bakhombisile (Lay President), 2008. 2008 Yearbook The Methodist Church of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Methodist Publishing House, pgs 81-82
Biyela, M., Interview conducted by Rev Herbert Moyo on the 21 October 2009 At The Lutheran Theological Institute.
Richardson, N., Interview on the 20th of October 2009 at Seth Mokotini Methodist Seminary. The interview was done by Rev Herbert Moyo- Religion and governance field officer – University of KwaZulu-Nata
Ward, E., Interview through email on 20 October 2009.
http://www.elcsant.org.za/publ/prn_view.asp?id=9. accessed on 17/10/09
Church Council report presented at the 2nd Session of the 5th Church Synod 2007 of ELCSA (N-T) at Kempton Park, 11 -14 Oct. 2007: http://www.elcsant.org.za/synod/reports_07.asp accessed on 18/10/09
http://www.elcsant.org.za/publ/prn_view.asp?id=9 UELCSA -Secular 1/2007. accessed on 17/10/09
MARIETTE LE ROUX | PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA – Aug 30 2005 00:00 http://www.mg.co.za/article/2005-08-30-no-easy-bridge-to-churchs- gay-divide. accessed on 18/10/09
DR Church ‘faces some challenges’ http://www.theherald.co.za/ herald/2005/05/26/news/n26_26052005.htm accessed on 16/10/09 Friday, 15 September 2006 http://www.mambaonline.com/article. asp?artid=527. accessed on 17/10/09
http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=426 accessed on 17/10/09
http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=426 accessed on 18/10/09
The Seventh-day Adventists have an international position on homosexuality. http://www.gladventist.org/faq/adventist-position. htm accessed on 18/10/09.
KWAZULU-NATAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL
50 Langalibalele (longmarket) Street,
those who choose to enter into a same sex partnership, any more than a copyright or patent is an infringement of the
freedoms, rights or dignity of a person who wishes to take his own recipe and market it under the name of Nandos
or Kentucky Fried Chicken. Indeed it could be argued that
to define a same sex partnership as marriage would be
an infringement on the rights of all those who, under our existing marriage act, have entered into marriage on the basis of a clear and specific understanding of the institution as defined in terms of the act, common law and received religious and cultural warrant.
Elsewhere in the Bill another term, such as ‘Civil Partnership Officer or similar, should be created.
- Notwithstanding the reservation concerning terminology expressed in point seven above of this submission, the Uniting Presbyterian Church supports the provision of section 6 of the Bill and considers this to be of cardinal importance.
- The Uniting Presbyterian Church supports the Bill in other respects.
Rev Ezekiel Nfanyana Gumede of the Living Waters Church in Greenfield Gauteng. Gumede is in the national committee of pastors for churches that were formed by homosexuals. He is the current spokesperson for these churches and he says that he is qualified to speak for all of them throughout the country. He speaks even for those that are worshipping illegal in Zimbabwe. In Zimbabwe homosexuality is an offence against the law.
Professor Richardson has saved as the chairperson of the Doctrinal Committee of the Methodists Church of Southern Africa since 2001 to 2008. His committee was mandated to come up with a sociological and theological sound position on homosexuality.
Abrahams Ivan Manuel (Presiding Bishop), Nyobole Gladstone Vuyani (Executive Secretary) and Mkwanazi Bakhombisile (Lay President), 2008. 2008 Yearbook The Methodist Church of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Methodist
‘MARIFTTE LE ROUX I PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA – Aug 30 2005 00:00 http://www.mg.co.za/article/2005-08-30- no-easy-bridge-to-churchs-gay-divide
“MARIETTE LE ROUX | PRETORIA, SOUTH AFRICA – Aug 30 2005 00:00 http://www.rng.co.za/article/2005-08-30- no-easy-bridge-to-churchs-gay-divide
DR Church ‘faces some challenges’ http://www.theherald.co.za/herald/2005/05/26/news/n26_26052005.htm
 The Uniting Presbyterian Church does not consider this to be an infringement of the freedoms, rights or dignity of
DEPARTMENT OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT AND LAND REFORM GREEN PAPER ON LAND REFORM, 2011 1.
The resolution of the 52nd National Conference of the ANC (December 2007) on agrarian change, land reform and rural development, confirmed the ANC’s acute awareness and sensitivity to the centrality of land (the land question) as a fundamental element in the resolution of the race, gender and class contradictions in South Africa. National sovereignty is defined in terms of land. Even without it being enshrined in the country’s supreme law, the Constitution, land is a national asset. This is where the debate about agrarian change, land reform and rural development should, appropriately, begin. Without this fundamental assumption, talk of effective land reform and food sovereignty and security is superfluous! We must, and shall, fundamentally review the current land tenure system during this Medium Term Strategic Framework (MTSF) period. This we shall do through rigorous engagement with all South Africans, so that we could emerge with a tenure system which should satisfy the aspirations of most, if not all, South Africans, irrespective of race, gender and class.
The strategy of the Department of Rural Development and Land Reform is, fittingly, ‘Agrarian Transformation’ – interpreted to denote ‘a rapid and fundamental change in the relations (systems and patterns of ownership and control) of land, livestock, cropping and community.’ The goal of the strategy is ‘social cohesion and development.’ All anti-colonial struggles are, at the core, about two things: repossession of land lost through force or deceit; and, restoring the centrality of indigenous culture.
That is why colonialists targeted land to subdue conquered populations, in order to turn them into vassals and slaves. Their next target was the people’s cultural practices, especially cross-cutting cultures, which served as a nexus holding together multi-cultural communities into single coherent societies, despite different cultures. Ubuntu or human solidarity is such a cross-cutting culture in the case of African societies. It is the over-arching way of life of the African people (consider the following two Xhosa expressions of ubuntu: (i) Nongenankomo uyawadla amasi; (ii) inkomo yenqoma, yintsengw’ibhekwa), which is integrally linked to land. green paper
on land reform, 2011 2
Any attempt at restoring ubuntu without a concomitant land restoration would be futile. Land is a fundamental means to ubuntu, the end!
Fundamentally, therefore, social cohesion, just like development, is a direct function of land access and ownership – the basic tenet of, or requirement for, the exercise of ubuntu in traditional African society. It is not just about allegiance to national symbols, e.g. the National Anthem and Flag, important as they are in the modern state context. It is part of a people’s expression of themselves, for themselves and of themselves. It is a way of life, integrally linked to land. If you denied African people (a definition which includes the San and the Khoi) access to, and, or, ownership of, land, as has been the case under both colonialism and Apartheid in South Africa, you have effectively destroyed the very foundation of their existence.
In rural communities social relationships are much deeper as they tend to be historical and inter-generational. Mutuality (both horizontal and hierarchical), a strong feature of ubuntu, is a way of life which would have evolved organically, nourished and cemented by shared hard and good times. Colonialism and Apartheid sought at all times, and by all means to destroy this mutuality amongst peoples of different cultures, but constituting the same society. Of all such means used, the Natives Land Act, Act no. 27 of 1913, and the migrant labour system are the ones which wreaked the most havoc in African rural communities, by seriously undermining the virtues of Ubuntu, as people lost their basic expression of it – the ability to give / izinwe – which disappeared with the loss of their land. They could no longer produce enough food to feed themselves as families; nor could they keep livestock. They had to survive on meager or slave wages, which could hardly meet their own family needs, let alone being generous and readily share with neighbours. Colonialism and Apartheid brutalized African people, turning them hostage to perennial hunger and want, and related diseases and social strifes and disorders. Rural development, agrarian change and land reform must be a catalyst in the ANC government’s mission to reverse this situation. It took centuries to inflict it upon black people and it is going to take quite a while to address it, but it shall be done. That long road necessarily starts with the crafting of a new pragmatic but fundamentally altered land tenure system for the country. Not to do so would perpetuate the current social and economic fragmentation and underdevelopment.
Development and its corollary, underdevelopment, as outcomes, are a function of certain political choices and decisions, as well as certain administrative practices, processes, procedures and institutions. Defined in this context, development denotes ‘social, cultural and economic progress brought about through certain political choices and decisions and realized through certain administrative practices, processes, procedures and institutions.’ The key parameters for measuring development, therefore, are social, political, administrative, cultural, institutional and economic. Depending on the type of political choices made and decisions taken, and the administrative practices, processes, procedures and institutions put in place in pursuit of those choices and decisions, there will be social progress (development)
or green paper on land reform, 2011 3
stagnation (under-development). In short, depending on the type of political choices and decisions we make and take now, and the type of administrative practices and institutions we put in place in pursuit of those choices and decisions, we will either bring about the desired social cohesion and development or we will perpetuate the current colonial-apartheid’s social and economic fragmentation and under- development.
For the sake of clarity, ‘development’ indicators in this Draft Green Paper are ‘shared growth and prosperity, full employment, relative income equality and cultural progress’; and, those for ‘under-development’ are ‘poverty, unemployment, relative income inequality and cultural backwardness’. It is, thus, submitted here that these two opposing socio-economic pillars, development and under-development, are a direct function of certain political choices and decisions, as well as certain administrative traditions and institutions, processes and procedures. They are not a product of just any political choice and decision, or any administrative practice, process, procedure or institution. If there could be anything positive which come from Apartheid, it is (a) the political courage and will to make hard choices and decisions; and, (b) the bureaucratic commitment, passion and aggression in pursuit of those political choices and decisions. We are in the mess we are in today because of these two sets of qualities – political courage and will to make hard choices and decisions, and bureaucratic commitment, passion and aggression in pursuit of those political choices and decisions. We need them now to pull the country out of the mess.
Apartheid was an outcome of particular political choices and decisions which were executed through a plethora of oppressive policies and laws, which were carefully crafted to achieve the set outcome. Consider the following passage from Maurice Evans, on the reduction in the Natal land quota for black people in this regard: “Yet even this will mean an average of 156 acres per head of European population, and 6.8 acres for every native, while the land which will fall within the European areas is infinitely healthier, more fertile, and altogether more desirable, than either present locations or the areas recommended by the Beaumont Commission”. (M Lacey: Working for Boroko, 1981)
This was not an isolated case. It was the South African story in the systematic denudation and impoverishment of African people (African inclusive of the San and the Khoi and their descendants). Our effort to bring about the corrective measures necessary to tone down the anger, bitterness and pain of those who have been subjected to this brutal treatment must be collective. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (the TRC) has adequately demonstrated the capacity and political will of black people, in general, and the African majority, in particular, to forgive. BUT,
this goodwill should not be taken for granted, because it is not an inexhaustible social asset. It is an asset around which we should work together to build our collective future. That is the spirit of this Draft Green Paper. green paper on land
reform, 2011 4
- Problem Statement
- The need to instill national identity, shared citizenship and autonomy-fostering service delivery are the primary reasons why the State must continue to invest in the transformation of land relations (systems and patterns of land control and ownership) in our country.
- The rationale behind state investment in, and the enduring demand for, land in South Africa is to be found in the historical background of what has been described by some scholars as “accumulation by dispossession”.
- The current economic structure of South Africa, as a result of this historical process and phenomenon, has produced, and continues to produce, net factors which combine to undermine the creation of conditions which are conducive to fostering social cohesion and development amongst those historically dispossessed of their land.
- The need to instill national identity, shared citizenship and autonomy-fostering service delivery are the primary reasons why the State must continue to invest in the transformation of land relations (systems and patterns of land control and ownership) in our country.
- Vision for Land Reform
- A re-configured single, coherent four-tier system of land tenure, which ensures that all South Africans, particularly rural blacks, have a reasonable access to land with secure rights, in order to fulfil their basic needs for housing and productive livelihoods.
- Clearly defined property rights, sustained by a fair, equitable and accountable land administration system within an effective judicial and ‘governance’ system.
- Secure forms of long-term land tenure for resident non-citizens engaged in appropriate investments which enhance food sovereignty and livelihood security, and improved agro-industrial development.
- Effective land use planning and regulatory systems which promote optimal land utilization in all areas and sectors; and, effectively administered rural and urban lands, and sustainable rural production systems.
- Principles Underlying Land Reform
- The principles which underpin land reform are three-fold:
- de-racialising the rural economy;
- democratic and equitable land allocation and use across race, gender and class; and,
- a sustained production discipline for food security
- The long-term goal of land reform is social cohesion and development. In this text, the concept ‘development’ refers to shared growth and prosperity, relative income equality, full employment and cultural progress. ‘Underdevelopment’ is the other side green paper on land reform, 2011 5
of this proverbial coin – poverty, relative income inequality, unemployment and cultural backwardness.
- The principles which underpin land reform are three-fold:
- Current Challenges and Weaknesses: Rationale for Change
- The land acquisition strategy / willing-buyer willing-seller model (a distorted land market);
- a fragmented beneficiary support system;
- beneficiary selection for land redistribution;
- land administration / governance, especially in communal areas;
- meeting the 30% redistribution target by 2014;
- declining agricultural contribution to the GDP;
- unrelenting increase in rural unemployment; and,
- a problematic restitution model and its support system (communal property institutions and management)
- An Improved Trajectory for Land Reform
- In articulating this improved trajectory for land reform, a set of proposals is advanced, which attempts to:
- improve on past and current land reform perspectives, without significantly disrupting agricultural production and food security; and,
- to avoid or minimise land redistribution and restitution which do not generate sustainable livelihoods, employment and incomes.
- This trajectory is supported by the following programmes and institutions:
- a recapitalisation and development programme;
- a single land tenure system with four tiers;
- a Land Management Commission;
- a Land Valuer-General;
- a Land Rights Management Board, with local management committees;
- properly aligned common property institutions (CPIs); and,
- the Land Tenure Security Bill, 2010, which is an integral part of the Land Reform Programme (LRP), but is treated separately from it.
- A Recapitalisation and Development Programme. The goal of this Programme is to ensure that all land reform farms are 100% productive. It focuses on all land reform farms acquired through state funds since 1994, as well as small-holder farms which had been privately acquired, but the new owners have had no means of keeping them productive. The strategy underlying the Programme is partnership with commercial farmers on a risk-sharing basis.
- A single land tenure framework has been fashioned out, integrating the current multiple forms of land ownership – communal, state, public and private – into a single 4-tier tenure system: green paper on land reform, 2011 6
- State and public land: Leasehold;
- Privately owned land: Freehold, with limited extent;
- Land owned by Foreigners: Freehold, but Precarious Tenure, with obligations and conditions to comply with; and,
- Communally owned land: Communal Tenure, with institutionalised use rights. The Communal Land Tenure (the 4th Tier), because of (a) its complexity (need for extensive consultations and constitutional compliance) and, (b) the recent nullification of the Communal Land Rights Act (CLaRA) by the Constitutional Court, will be treated in a separate policy articulation.
6.5 Land Management Commission (LMC)
The LMC will be autonomous, but not independent, of the Ministry and Department. It will be accountable to the Ministry through the Department; and, will submit regular reports to the latter. A financial manager, accountable to the Department’s Accounting Officer, will manage the finances of the Commission. The LMC will be composed of all stakeholders in land and persons appointed by the Minister because of their special attributes.
- Functions of the LMC
- Advisory – issues advisory opinions, research reports and guidelines on land management to all land related departments and state organs.
- Coordination – ensures alignment, inter-linkages and coherence of disparate land management agencies, departments, spheres and other organs of state.
- Regulatory – Manage the regulatory environment that ensures that lands are managed in a manner that will protect the quality and values.
- Auditing – assures the integrity of the inventory of state and public lands including monitoring its uses.
- Reference point.
- Powers of the LMC The LMC will have power to:
- subpoena anyone and any entity, private or public, to appear before it, and answer any question relating to its landholding or land interest;
- enquire about any land question, out of its own initiative or at the instance of interested parties;
- verify and /or validate / invalidate individual or corporate title deeds;
- demand a declaration of any landholding, with all the necessary documentation relevant to such a declaration;
- grant amnesty and / or to initiate prosecution, whichever the case might be, at its own discretion; and,
- seize or confiscate land gotten through fraudulent or corrupt means. green paper
on land reform, 2011 7
- The Land Valuer-General (LVG)
- Problem Statement
- South Africa lacks a nationwide comprehensive, reliable and collated hub of property values;
- absence of legislative framework to determine when ‘market value’ is one of the variables in determining values as opposed to being the only criterion;
- probity of some of the valuation is questionable;
- conflict of interest and malpractices;
- improper or hurried valuations in order to meet deadlines or compliance planning; and,
- an ahistorical or mechanical approach to valuation.
- Responsibilities of the Office of the Valuer-General (OVG)
The Valuer-General will be a statutory office responsible for:
- the provision of fair and consistent land values for rating and taxing purposes;
- determining financial compensation in cases of land expropriation, under the Expropriation Act or any other policy and legislation, in compliance with the constitution;
- the provision of specialist valuation and property-related advice to government;
- setting norms and standards, and monitoring service delivery;
- undertaking market and sales analysis;
- setting guidelines, norms and standards required to validate the integrity of the valuation data; and,
- creating and maintaining a data-base of valuation information.
- Land Rights Management Board (LRMB) and Land Rights Management Committees (LRMCs)
- The LRMB will be composed of representatives of sectors which hold rights to land and persons appointed by the Minister because of their special knowledge and capacity to provide professional services to the Board. The Land Rights Management Committees, on the other hand, will be composed of representatives of residents in a specific rural environment or settlement: farm-workers and dwellers, commercial farmers, relevant municipal councils, government departments such as the drdlr, Human Settlements, as well as the South African Police Service.
- Functions of the LRMB
- communication of legal reforms to farm owners, farm-dwellers and potential land beneficiaries;
- build institutional capacity (inside and outside state institutions) to advise and support rights-holders, and facilitate their active use of the law; green paper on land
reform, 2011 8
- in collaboration with the Chief Deeds Registrar, develop accessible and efficient systems for recording and registering rights on land;
- to encourage the primacy of social solutions to social problems and disputes;
- to provide legal representation, where necessary, e. g. unlawful evictions; and,
- to establish a co-ordinated and integrated support system for state, civil society and private sector participation in integrated development measures in rural settlements.
6.7.3 Powers of the LRMB The LRMB will have power to:
- establish and, or, dissolve Land Rights Management Committees (LRMCs);
- set norms and standards for the LRMCs;
- delegate certain powers to the LRMCs;
- enforce compliance with norms and standards, as well as land rights management policies and laws;
- hear appeals on matters handled by the LRMCs;
- to over-turn decisions of the LRMCs; and,
- enforce respect for, and observance of, rights of fellow dwellers.
- The Strategic Thrust of Land Reform
- Land Reform is located within the CRDP, and is anchored by the following pillars:
- a coordinated and integrated broad-based agrarian transformation;
- an improved land reform programme; and,
- strategic investment in economic, cultural, ICT and social infrastructure for the benefit of all rural communities.
- While separate in the design, rural development and land reform are aligned at policy, programme and institutional levels to ensure coordinated service delivery. In pursuit of agrarian transformation, the link between the land question and agriculture is acknowledged as the basis of the search for an economic rationale and a vision of a post-reform agrarian structure. Yet, demand for land may be for other productive but non-agricultural uses.
- Land Reform Experience Elsewhere 8.1 Asia
China replaced the Commune System with a two-layer management system – household contract responsibility system and granting farmers self-management rights; it replaced monopoly over purchase and marketing, allowing farmers the right
to green paper on land reform, 2011 9
exchange farm produce freely; and, it transformed the single collective ownership into various private ownerships, where the farmer can dispose of assets.
India introduced the following reforms: it regulated sharecropping; provided legal protection against eviction; instituted a land ceiling Act; and provided homestead plots.
- Latin America
Brazil embarked upon selective expropriation with compensation; viable family smallholder farms receiving government support, serving domestic market, while large-scale commercial farms serve export markets; and, combined market-related strategies with traditional land management systems, in a complementary manner.
Mexico had mixed experiences: nationalisation in 1910; redistribution in 1935; denationalisation in 1946; and, a peasant revolt in 1970 resulted in the take-over of land owned by foreigners, turning it into collectives.
Chile expropriated large farms in the 1960s, turning them into co-operatives for peasants and small farmers. There was a reversal in 1974, after the assassination of President Allende, with the re-instatement of elite family farms. Regulatory reforms were introduced on land rentals and subdivisions in the 1980s.
On the African continent the Egyptian experience provides interesting lessons on land reform. Legislation was passed in the 1950s, limiting farm size to a maximum of 42ha per individual; limiting rental rates; and, setting minimum lease durations. 9. Challenges and Constraints
9.1 For the land reform programme to proceed rapidly and succeed, as it must, a number of challenges and constraints have to be confronted, and overcome. The main challenges are:
- entrenched vested interests, in both the commercial and communal land spaces; and,
- poor co-ordination and integration of effort and resources among public institutions, and between public and private sector institutions; and, green paper on
land reform, 2011 1 0
(c) the main constraint is the poor capacity of organs of state to implement. 9.2 These three elements constitute a complex risk-factor to any effective, equitable and speedy resolution of the land question. It will require time and an enduring, collective, national political effort to overcome them. Co-ordination and integration across all relevant organs of state and civil society is the key to a successful execution of the sustainable land reform programme.
- Summary and Conclusion
- Undoing the social, economic and cultural effects of centuries of discrimination and exclusion, on the basis of race, class and gender will take time and an enduring national political effort.
- Challenges and constraints experienced over the last seventeen years, and lessons drawn from other countries across the world, show clearly that there are no silver bullets to solving post-colonial land questions.
- A systems approach seems necessary and appropriate in addressing complex and emotive challenges such land reform. The failure to protect the rights and security of tenure of farm workers and dwellers is a good illustration of this point. There is a strong view that the real problem in land reform in general; and, in the protection of the rights and security of tenure of farm-dwellers, in particular, may be that of a total-system failure (TSF) rather than that of a single piece of legislation, e.g., Extension of Security of Tenure Act (ESTA).
- In the case of farm-workers and dwellers, this failure would reflect in a number of aspects: inadequate articulation of policy and legislative regime to protect farm workers and dwellers; poor implementation of existing policies and legislation by organs of the state; weak enforcement of legislation by law-enforcement agencies; the judicial system not being worker-friendly in handling eviction cases; labour unions not organizing effectively on farms; non-complementary (almost adversarial) relationship between non-governmental organizations and state organs in addressing problems of farm-dwellers; and, poor or non-existent monitoring, coordination and communication amongst state organs, within and across the three spheres of government, and other interested parties, on matters negatively affecting the rights of farm workers and dwellers.
- The following passages, directly and indirectly, quoting the first President of the African National Congress, Dr John Langalibalele Dube, have been taken from the recently published book by Heather Hughes, First President (2011). It addresses the hunger and need for land by African people. The situation has not changed much since the 1930s, when the sentiment was expressed by Dr Dube. We must change
it now! green paper on land reform, 2011 1 1
The points that Dube and his colleagues had made about the draft legislation (Natives’ Representation in Parliament Bill, the Natives’ Land Bill and the Natives’ Council Bill) were incorporated and extended in his testimony to the Natives’ Economic Commission….He had prepared a written submission on which he was closely questioned at great length in the hearing. Uppermost in his mind and, he said, in the minds of African people was the land issue. They needed far more of it, particularly those who could not afford to buy. The land ought to be purchased for them and handed over; all the African areas ought to be properly surveyed and divided into building plots, grazing grounds and gardens. People could pay a nominal rent for their plots.
“There are only one million of you and there are about six millions of us; and one million of you have three fourths of the land, and six millions of us have one fourth of the land. That is not fair….In asking (for more land) I do not think we are asking for charity; we have contributed to the development of South Africa with our labour…we have done our share in that respect, and in the matter of taxation, both direct and indirect”.
He vigorously fought off the commissioners’ views that Africans did not know how to use their land properly, that any more would just be wasted, that Africans multiplied too fast, that they had too many cattle:
“The black ox has nowhere to feed, and the white ox has all the pasture…I am sorry if I cannot make that clear to you”.
[Heather Hughes (2011). First President. A Life of John L Dube, founding President of the ANC].
Theological Aspects of HIV and AIDS in the Context of Human Sexuality, Use of Condoms and Prevention: An Ethical Reflection – A Prolegomenon
26 January 2009
Dr M L Ngoetjana
Introduction: Please let us theologise. Somehow, Christian theology that is worth the label must refer to Biblical texts. Otherwise we confine systematic theology to mere philosophizing and reduction of faith is disregard of the Bible. We need to be encouraged that there is a backing from other human disciplines which testify to the unfathomable wisdom and foreknowledge sincerely found in Christian scriptures. This means that theology is not a lone voice of irrational people who believe without reason and scientific evidence as our world requires today. This rudimentary paper attempts to sincerely support the scriptures on health which have been scientifically authenticated[I].
Executive Summary: The challenge of HIV and AIDS, in inference is related to the texts of disease and healing in the scriptures. HIV and AIDS is not the virus nor the syndrome found in the scriptures. HIV and AIDS is our modern challenge. We can only relate the virus and the syndrome in inference to the scriptures. But the principles of health and healing found in the scriptures hold and are relevant to both our contextual theologisation and evidential findings of empirical scientific inquiry. In summary, clean living, clean behaviour, clean environment, clean water, clean food, clean sex, clean relationships, clean hands, clean clothes an clean habits are an answer to the combat of HIV and AIDS.
Ancient Cultures, Prevention, Sex and Medicine
“Most ancient cultures had extensive lists of medicines and procedures for treating disease. The health laws that God gave to Moses, however, did not focus on treating disease, but instead focused on preventing disease and promoting health! This is why medical historian Ralph Major describes Moses as “the greatest sanitary engineer that the world has ever seen” because “Moses recognized the great principle that the prevention of disease is usually simpler and invariably more far reaching than the cure of disease… His doctrines [in the book of Leviticus] could be summed up by the objects of sanitation today—pure food, pure water, pure air, pure bodies and pure dwellings” (A History of Medicine, vol. 1, pp. 62-64)”.
“The biblical health laws are timeless! They were valid in the days of Moses, and they are just as valid—and applicable—today. The Bible reveals that when Jesus Christ returns to establish the Kingdom of God on this earth, the laws of God will be proclaimed to the world from Jerusalem (Isaiah 2:2-4). As human beings around the globe learn to live by these simple yet fundamentally important laws, their health will improve—and the plague of disease will begin to disappear (Isaiah 35:5-7). This is part of the gospel! You can play a vital role in this incredible transformation (Isaiah 30:20-21)—if you learn the value of applying these biblical health laws in your own life today!”
Faced with HIV and AIDS is another challenge than communicable diseases of the Biblical times. The virus is sophisticated, complex, dynamic, ever changing, myriad, regional, perplexing, changing, and smart. The virus uses the very body defenses, emulates it, copies it and unfortunately works against it. The challenge confronts us with incisive ethical dilemmas. Should like it was in Biblical times confine people living with HIV and AIDS in seclude and separate places? Did not the seclusion of people living with dreaded Biblical diseases help contain the incurable diseases of the Biblical times. If we were to apply the Bible literally, we should be having seclusion areas for people living with HIV and AIDS. Will that be ethically acceptable?
Granted, it is convincing that laws of quarantine – of keeping people locked in separate camps, like those with Extreme Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR), should not be imposed on people living with HIV and AIDS, but why?
Laws of Quarantine/ Keeping People Secluded
“[Besides and including Biblical times a] plague which prevailed in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in Europe was leprosy. England, Sweden, Iceland and Norway showed alarming gains in the numbers of leprosy cases in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. But when the authorities began to institute the quarantine, in the form of segregation of leprosy cases, the plague was again brought under control.
In Norway rigid national quarantine was introduced in 1856 because of the widespread severity of leprosy. “Ninety years later the health authorities were able to report that Norway had only five percent of the number of lepers that were there before segregation. Similarly favorable reports come to us from Finland and Sweden, where enforced segregation of lepers had also been instituted,” writes D.T. Atkinson (Magic, Myth and Medicine, p. 64)”.
Shall we propose the same seclusion legislation for the prevention of the virus and the syndrome? Where did these quarantine laws come from? This same author tells us, “It is most singular that a description of leprosy, as found in the thirteenth chapter of Leviticus, could have been written so long before our time. It is to be noticed that such an accurate description of this dread malady as it appears in the Biblical narrative is not to be found in the literature of any nation for the next seventeen hundred years” (ibid; p. 25-26).
Astounding, amazing, astonishing, and confounding the case is. Why should it be, since the Bible was divinely inspired by God who created mankind and knows and has prescribed how to deal with incurable diseases? Why can’t we simply follow what God has approved? For instance, the solution for leprosy was to seclude the infected? Why can’t seclude the HIV and AIDS infected? Why do we do it with XTB and not with HIV infected people? Is it because we are now living in a culture of relativism, human rights, democracy, and freedom? Is it because issues depend on how you look at them, that humans must not be confined or secluded, and that the majority determines the will of the people?
Isn’t it that the majority say people living with HIV must live among us, and they must not be secluded. Is it not argued that it is unethical to discriminate against people infected with HIV. So what about those who are affected by HIV and AIDS? Must we seclude
them. So, let it be. We must all, each one of us be secluded. Ultimately not a single one of us must move. Impossible!
Speaking of the Biblical laws regarding leprosy, Atkinson states: “The laws of health laid down in Leviticus are the BASIS OF MODERN SANITARY SCIENCE. Moses ordered that cases of leprosy should be segregated, that dwellings from which infected Jews had gone should be inspected before again being occupied, and that persons recovering from contagious disease were not to be allowed to go abroad until examined. The modern quarantine harks back to these sanitary regulations of the Old Testament” (p. 58).
Similarly, Arturo Castiglioni in A History of Medicine tells us, “The laws against leprosy in Leviticus 13 may be regarded as the first model of a sanitary legislation” (p. 71)” ( Dankenbring, 1972 ). In simple terms, let all of us without secluding other, live positively in the context of HIV and AIDS. Let all of us know our status and live positively in the world of HIV and AIDS.
The Bible Versus Venereal Disease
“The fastest spreading contagious disease in the Western world today is venereal disease. In the United States, someone contracts venereal disease every 12 seconds! Dr. Geoffrey Simmons of the Los Angeles County Health Department predict[ed] that by 1975 the present two million annual cases of V.D. in the United States will rise to five million. But why? What is the cause?
Medical authorities frankly admit that V.D. is spread through sexual contact.
Homosexuals account for nearly one fifth of the reported cases! As long as there is promiscuity, free sex, and homosexuality, there is bound to be venereal disease”.
“But the solution to this terrible worldwide curse is as simple as it is ancient: “Shun immorality! Any other sin that a man commits is outside the body, but the immoral man sins against his own body” (I Cor. 6:18, Moffatt translation).
What does the Bible say will happen to those who devote themselves to sexual vice, who dishonour their own bodies? God says: “… their women have exchanged the natural function of sex for what is unnatural, and in the same way the males have abandoned the natural use of women and flamed out in lust for one another, men perpetrating shameless acts with their own sex and getting in their own persons the due recompense of their perversity” (Rom. 1:26-27, Moffatt).
The growing incidence of this ancient plague speaks eloquently that the solution is prevention! Thousands of years ago the Biblical standards of morality safeguarded against this plague which blights the lives of as yet unborn generations. There is no safe, reliable “cure” for this disease — except prevention. Why do millions insist on hiding their eyes from this obvious truth?
When God created mankind He said, “Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they shall be one flesh” (Gen. 2:24). If this one basic, scriptural principle were obeyed, today, the world would see the end of venereal disease. It would be totally stamped out!
The Bible, clearly, is a remarkable book. Its various portions, written from 4,000 to 2,000 years ago, speak authoritatively regarding health and disease prevention. The Bible not only gave laws of sanitation and hygiene thousands of years before the world in general stumbled across those laws by “accident,” but it also gave other fundamental principles of prevention of disease which the world still refuses to face!”
The Great Paradox
“Paradoxically, the world has come to acknowledge many of the health principles outlined in the Bible, but still refuses to acknowledge the Source. When will men cease to overlook the Source Book for good health? God’s laws were designed to PREVENT illness — to maintain vibrant good health. But the world only gives lip service to them and ignores their source. What a paradox!
It is time we admitted that thousands of years ago when pagan, Gentile nations — steeped in idolatry and superstition — were propounding all kinds of weird remedies and quack cures for illness, there was a nation free from idolatrous superstition, which was taught principles of health and disease prevention which are still valid today! What does this momentous fact mean? Just this: The Bible is no mere book of men — its authorship is divine! Biblical health laws prove — along with the proofs of Biblical prophecy — that the Bible was divinely inspired by the Eternal God!
There is a Creator God. He “manufactured” the human race. And He wrote an “Instruction Book” that goes along with His product, and tells how it is best operated.
Just as any automobile manufacturer sends an instruction book along with each new automobile, so God gave us an Instruction Book — the Bible — which tells us how to live, and how to have robust, radiant health and vitality!
The Bible is the foundation of all knowledge, including the knowledge of health. If society will build on its fundamental precepts wisely and soundly, we can avoid the tragedy of increasing sickness and disease. We can begin to eliminate the terrible scourges of modern disease. Biblical laws are the keys to abundant health. They were devised for your protection and well-being. But if you break them, they will break you. Will you begin to obey those laws? Your future health — physically, mentally and emotionally — will depend in large measure on how you answer that question!”
Dialogue, Stigma and HIV Prevention: Engaging the Notion of Dialogue
It is often useful to contrast Dialogue with a more familiar form of communication, discussion. Discussion has the same Greek root as percussion and concussion, discus, meaning to throw, fragment, shatter. David Bohm likened discussion to an activity where we throw our opinions back and forth in an attempt to convince each other of the rightness of a particular point of view. In this process, the whole view is often fragmented and shattered into many pieces. The intentions of dialogue and discussion are quite different and are contrasted below.
Bible, Evil and Disease
The notion of the problem of disease correlates with the problem of evil.
AIDS in a skolopsychichal perspective (a thorn in the flesh) – the sufficiency of God’s grace (II Cor. 12: 1 – 10).
AIDS and manifestation of God’s Glory (gloriae reveletus)
On the Condom
Condom – Pleasure – Infection – aim not reached
Condom – legal and illegal use
Condom and carnal impulses – extra marital
Condom and Palliative/ soothing nature of human sexual passion
Interpretation of the Gospel in AIDS Perspective
Seeking help coming from behind and at night (Mk 5: 25 – 34, Jn. 3: 1 – 13)
Speicer S and J. Wilson. 2007. Exploring Solutions: How to Talk About HIV
Prevention in the Church. Switzerland: Ecumenical Alliance.
Dankenbring, William F. 1972. Bible Laws — The Foundation of Good Health
Edelston, K. 1988. Countdown to Doomsday: AIDS. Johannesburg: Media House Publications
Toya, Jeran-Samuel, H. AIDS: African Perspective.
1 This paper is not for publication yet but can be read and discussed.